Appendix BHow this guideline was developed

This guideline was developed in accordance with the process for short clinical guidelines set out in ‘The guidelines manual’ (2009) (see www.nice.org.uk/GuidelinesManual). There is more information about how NICE clinical guidelines are developed on the NICE website (www.nice.org.uk/HowWeWork). A booklet, ‘How NICE clinical guidelines are developed: an overview for stakeholders, the public and the NHS’ (fourth edition, published 2009), is available from NICE publications (phone 0845 003 7783 or email ku.gro.ecin@snoitacilbup and quote reference N1739).

Search strategies

Medline search strategies for the Organ Donation guideline

Scoping searches

Scoping searches were undertaken in March 2010 using the following websites and databases (listed in alphabetical order); browsing or simple search strategies were employed. The search results were used to provide information for scope development and project planning.

Main searches

The following sources were searched for the topics presented in the sections below.

  • Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews – CDSR (Wiley)
  • Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials – CENTRAL (Wiley)
  • Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects – DARE (CRD)
  • Health Technology Assessment Database – HTA (CRD)
  • CINAHL (NHS Evidence)
  • EMBASE (Ovid)
  • MEDLINE (Ovid)
  • MEDLINE In-Process (Ovid)

The MEDLINE search strategies are presented below. They were translated for use in all of the other databases.

Search for identification of potential organ donors

  1. exp Death, Sudden/
  2. Brain death/
  3. ((“brain stem” or brainstem or brain-stem or brain or neuro* or medulla*) adj3 (death* or dead or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  4. ((cardiac or heart or cardio*) adj3 (death* or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  5. (post mortem* or cadaver* or dead or death* or deceased).ti,ab.
  6. or/1–5
  7. exp “Tissue and organ procurement”/or Tissue donors/
  8. ((don* or procur*) adj3 (tissue* or organ*)).ti,ab.
  9. 7 or 8
  10. Decision Making/
  11. (identif* or select* or confirm* or establish* or ascertain* or verif* or distinguish* or classif* or recogniz* or recognis* or determin* or deci* or qualif* or refer* or recruit* or initiat* or criteri* or accept* or potential* or attitud* or characteris* or find* or discover* or verif* or diagnos*).ti.
  12. 10 or 11
  13. 6 and 9 and 12
  14. animals/not humans/
  15. 13 not 14
  16. limit 15 to english language

Search for clinical triggers for referral to organ donation team

  1. exp “Tissue and organ procurement”/or Tissue donors/
  2. ((don* or procur*) adj3 (tissue* or organ*)).ti,ab.
  3. 1 or 2
  4. trigger*.tw.
  5. “Referral and Consultation”/
  6. Models, Organizational/
  7. (“task force” or “taskforce” or “task-force”).ti,ab.
  8. or/4–7
  9. 3 and 8
  10. animals/not humans/
  11. 9 not 10
  12. limit 11 to english language

Search for papers about obtaining consent for organ donation

  1. exp Death, Sudden/
  2. Brain death/
  3. ((“brain stem” or brainstem or brain-stem or brain or neuro* or medulla*) adj3 (death* or dead or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  4. ((cardiac or heart or cardio*) adj3 (death* or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  5. (postmortem or post-mortem or post mortem* or cadaver* or dead or death* or deceased).ti,ab.
  6. or/1–5
  7. exp “Tissue and organ procurement”/or Tissue donors/
  8. ((don* or procur*) adj3 (tissue* or organ*)).ti,ab.
  9. 7 or 8
  10. exp Informed Consent/or exp Third-Party Consent/or exp Consent Forms/or exp Presumed Consent/or exp Parental Consent/
  11. (consent* or agree* or accept* or allow* or permi* or sanction* or approv* or cooperat* or co-operat* or compl* or obtain* or assent* or authoris* or authoriz* or concur* or accede* or endors*).ti.
  12. 10 or 11
  13. 6 and 9 and 12
  14. animals/not humans/
  15. 13 not 14
  16. limit 15 to english language

Search for timing of approach

  1. exp Death, Sudden/
  2. Brain death/
  3. ((“brain stem” or brainstem or brain-stem or brain or neuro* or medulla*) adj3 (death* or dead or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  4. ((cardiac or heart or cardio*) adj3 (death* or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  5. (postmortem or post-mortem or post mortem* or cadaver* or dead or death* or deceased).ti,ab.
  6. or/1–5
  7. exp “Tissue and organ procurement”/or Tissue donors/
  8. ((don* or procur*) adj3 (tissue* or organ*)).ti,ab.
  9. 7 or 8
  10. Time/or Time Factors/or Time Management/
  11. (time* or timing*).tw.
  12. 10 or 11
  13. exp Informed Consent/or exp Third-Party Consent/or exp Consent Forms/or exp Presumed Consent/or exp Parental Consent/
  14. (consent* or agree* or accept* or allow* or permi* or sanction* or approv* or cooperat* or co-operat* or compl* or obtain* or assent* or authoris* or authoriz* or concur* or accede* or endors*).ti.
  15. 13 or 14
  16. 6 and 9 and 12 and 15
  17. Animals/not Humans/
  18. 16 not 17
  19. limit 18 to english language

Search for care pathways in organ donation

  1. exp Death, Sudden/
  2. Brain death/
  3. ((“brain stem” or brainstem or brain-stem or brain or neuro* or medulla*) adj3 (death* or dead or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  4. ((cardiac or heart or cardio*) adj3 (death* or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  5. (postmortem or post-mortem or post mortem* or cadaver* or dead or death* or deceased).ti,ab.
  6. or/1–5
  7. exp “Tissue and organ procurement”/or Tissue donors/
  8. ((don* or procur*) adj3 (tissue* or organ*)).ti,ab.
  9. 7 or 8
  10. Critical pathways/
  11. “Delivery of Health Care, Integrated”/
  12. Patient care planning/
  13. ((care or clinical or integrated or multidisciplinary or critical) adj3 (pathway* or path* or plan* or protocol* or procedure* or program* or programme* or manag* or process* or outline* or algorithm* or map* or schedul*)).ti,ab.
  14. or/10–13
  15. 6 and 9 and 14
  16. animals/not humans/
  17. 15 not 16

Search for competencies of staff in organ donation

  1. exp “Tissue and organ procurement”/or Tissue donors/
  2. ((don* or procur*) adj3 (tissue* or organ*)).ti,ab.
  3. 1 or 2
  4. Inservice Training/
  5. exp Professional Competence/
  6. (competenc* or skill* or train* or abilit* or expert* or role* or capab* or capacit* or technique* or know*).ti,ab.
  7. or/4–6
  8. (coordinator* or co-ordinator* or “co ordinator”).ti,ab.
  9. exp Nurses/
  10. nurse.ti,ab.
  11. exp Medical Staff/
  12. (doctor* or consultant* or physician* or surgeon* or attending or clinician*).ti,ab.
  13. ((critical or intensive or medical) adj3 (staff or personnel or care)).ti,ab.
  14. or/8–13
  15. 3 and 7 and 14
  16. animals/ not humans/
  17. 15 not 16
  18. limit 17 to english language

Search for economic studies

  1. exp Death, Sudden/
  2. Brain death/
  3. ((“brain stem” or brainstem or brain-stem or brain or neuro* or medulla*) adj3 (death* or dead or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  4. ((cardiac or heart or cardio*) adj3 (death* or injur* or sever* or irreversib* or damage* or traum* or fail* or arrest*)).ti,ab.
  5. (postmortem or post-mortem or post mortem* or cadaver* or dead or death* or deceased).ti,ab.
  6. or/1–5
  7. exp “Tissue and organ procurement”/or Tissue donors/
  8. ((don* or procur*) adj3 (tissue* or organ*)).ti,ab.
  9. 7 or 8
  10. Economics/use mesz
  11. exp “Costs and Cost Analysis”/
  12. Economics, Dental/
  13. exp Economics, Hospital/
  14. exp Economics, Medical/
  15. Economics, Nursing/
  16. Economics, Pharmaceutical/
  17. Budgets/
  18. exp Models, Economic/
  19. Markov Chains/
  20. Monte Carlo Method/
  21. Decision Trees/
  22. econom$.tw.
  23. cba.tw.
  24. cea.tw.
  25. cua.tw.
  26. markov$.tw.
  27. (monte adj carlo).tw.
  28. (decision adj2 (tree$ or analys$)).tw.
  29. (cost or costs or costing$ or costly or costed).tw.
  30. (price$ or pricing$).tw.
  31. budget$.tw.
  32. expenditure$.tw.
  33. (value adj2 (money or monetary)).tw.
  34. (pharmacoeconomic$ or (pharmaco adj economic$)).tw.
  35. or/10–34
  36. “Quality of Life”/use mesz
  37. quality of life.tw.
  38. “Value of Life”/use mesz
  39. Quality-Adjusted Life Years/use mesz
  40. quality adjusted life.tw.
  41. (qaly$ or qald$ or qale$ or qtime$).tw.
  42. disability adjusted life.tw.
  43. daly$.tw.
  44. Health Status Indicators/use mesz
  45. (sf36 or sf 36 or short form 36 or shortform 36 or sf thirtysix or sf thirty six or shortform thirtysix or shortform thirty six or short form thirtysix or short form thirty six).tw.
  46. (sf6 or sf 6 or short form 6 or shortform 6 or sf six or sfsix or shortform six or short form six).tw.
  47. (sf12 or sf 12 or short form 12 or shortform 12 or sf twelve or sftwelve or shortform twelve or short form twelve).tw.
  48. (sf16 or sf 16 or short form 16 or shortform 16 or sf sixteen or sfsixteen or shortform sixteen or short form sixteen).tw.
  49. (sf20 or sf 20 or short form 20 or shortform 20 or sf twenty or sftwenty or shortform twenty or short form twenty).tw.
  50. (euroqol or euro qol or eq5d or eq 5d).tw.
  51. (qol or hql or hqol or hrqol).tw.
  52. (hye or hyes).tw.
  53. health$ year$ equivalent$.tw.
  54. utilit$.tw.
  55. (hui or hui1 or hui2 or hui3).tw.
  56. disutili$.tw.
  57. rosser.tw.
  58. quality of wellbeing.tw.
  59. quality of well-being.tw.
  60. qwb.tw.
  61. willingness to pay.tw.
  62. standard gamble$.tw.
  63. time trade off.tw.
  64. time tradeoff.tw.
  65. tto.tw.
  66. or/36–65
  67. 35 or 66
  68. 6 and 9 and 67
  69. animals/not humans/
  70. 68 not 69
  71. limit 70 to english language

Review protocols and clinical questions

Key clinical issues and review questions

Image

Table

Structures and processes including timing for referral and criteria for consideration for identifying potential DBD and DCD donors Structures and processes for obtaining consent for cadaveric organ donation for transplantation, including the optimum timing (more...)

Review protocols

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Table

Families, relatives and legal guardians of potential DBD and DCD donors (adults and children). Subgroups considerations: (i) people from black and minority ethnic groups; (ii) people with differing religious beliefs.

Image

Table

Families, relatives and legal guardians of potential DBD and DCD donors (adults and children). Subgroups considerations: (i) people from black and minority ethnic groups; (ii) people with different religious beliefs.

Image

Table

Families, relatives and legal guardians of potential DBD and DCD donors (adults and children). Subgroups considerations: (i) people from black and minority ethnic groups; (ii) people with different religious beliefs.

Image

Table

NA Hospitals

Image

Table

Families, relatives and legal guardians of potential DBD and DCD donors (adults and children). Subgroups considerations: (i) people from black and minority ethnic groups; (ii) people with different religious beliefs.

Excluded studies

Review question 1

  • Aaronson KD, Schwartz JS, Chen TM, Wong KL, Goin JE, Mancini DM. Development and prospective validation of a clinical index to predict survival in ambulatory patients referred for cardiac transplant evaluation. Circulation. 1997;95:2660–2667. Reason for Exclusion: looking at survival in ambulatory patients referred for cardiac transplant evaluation. [PubMed: 9193435]

  • Abbud-Filho M, Ramalho H, Pires HS, Silveira JA. Attitudes and awareness regarding organ donation in the western region of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Transplantation Proceedings. 1995;27:1835. Reason for Exclusion: surveyed population are not health care professionals. [PubMed: 7725527]

  • Al Sebayel MI, Khalaf H. Knowledge and attitude of intensivists toward organ donation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Transplantation Proceedings. 2004;36:1883–84. Reason for Exclusion: looking at attitudes towards organ donation. [PubMed: 15518684]

  • Al-Mousawi M, Abdul-Razzak M, Samhan M. Attitude of ICU staff in Kuwait regarding organ donation and brain death. Transplantation Proceedings. 2001;33:2634–35. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 11498097]

  • Antommaria AH, Bratton SL. Nurses’ attitudes toward donation after cardiac death: implications for nurses’ roles and moral distress. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2008;9:339–40. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 18446100]

  • Baines LS, Joseph JT, Jindal RM. A public forum to promote organ donation amongst Asians: the Scottish initiative. Transplant International. 2002;15:124–31. Reason for Exclusion: looking at views on organ donation and how to promote it in the Asian community. [PubMed: 11935169]

  • Barber K, Falvey S, Hamilton C, Collett D, Rudge C. Potential for organ donation in the United Kingdom: audit of intensive care records. BMJ. 2006;332:1124–27. Reason for Exclusion: looks at why potential donors couldn’t end up as actual donors. [PMC free article: PMC1459557] [PubMed: 16641118]

  • Beasley CL, Capossela CL, Brigham LE, Gunderson S, Weber P, Gortmaker SL. The impact of a comprehensive, hospital-focused intervention to increase organ donation. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1997;7:6–13. Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral to identify potential donors. [PubMed: 9188393]

  • Belzer FO, Kountz SL. Criteria for selection of cadaver donors. Transplantation Proceedings. 1972;4:591–93. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 4566801]

  • Bener A, El-Shoubaki H, Al-Maslamani Y. Do we need to maximize the knowledge and attitude level of physicians and nurses toward organ donation and transplant? Experimental & Clinical Transplantation: Official Journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. 2008;6:249–53. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 19338484]

  • Bledsoe CM. PhD. University of Utah; 1994. Factors influencing the decision of families to donate organs. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it.

  • Bogh L, Madsen M. Attitudes, knowledge, and proficiency in relation to organ donation: a questionnaire-based analysis in donor hospitals in northern Denmark. Transplantation Proceedings. 2005;37:3256–57. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 16298563]

  • Bohatyrewicz R, Walecka A, Bohatyrewicz A, Zukowski M, Kepinski S, Marzec-Lewenstein E, Sawicki M, Kordowski J. Unusual movements, “spontaneous” breathing, and unclear cerebral vessels sonography in a brain-dead patient: a case report. Transplantation Proceedings. 2007;39:2707–8. Reason for Exclusion: looking at definitive diagnostic tests to confirm BSD. [PubMed: 18021964]

  • Brown CVR, Foulkrod KH, Dworaczyk S, Thompson K, Elliot E, Cooper H, Coopwood B. Barriers to obtaining family consent for potential organ donors. Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 2010;68:447–51. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 20154557]

  • Caballero F, Lopez-Navidad A, Leal J, Garcia-Sousa S, Soriano JA, Domingo P. The cultural level of cadaveric potential organ donor relatives determines the rate of consent for donation. Transplantation Proceedings. 1999;31:2601. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 10500736]

  • Cameron AM, Ghobrial RM. Utilization of extended criteria donors. Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation. 2007;12:119–24. Reason for Exclusion: looking at using criteria to identify potential donors.

  • Cherkassky L. Presumed consent in organ donation: is the duty finally upon us? European Journal of Health Law. 2010;17:149–64. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 20443442]

  • Cheung AH, Alden DL, Wheeler MS. Cultural attitudes of Asian-Americans toward death adversely impact organ donation. Transplantation Proceedings. 1998;30:3609–10. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 9838580]

  • Cheung AH, Luna GK. Cadaveric organ donor availability: regional trauma center vs. community hospital. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 1990;30:1366–71. Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral in the study. [PubMed: 2231805]

  • Childress JF. The failure to give: reducing barriers to organ donation. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 2001;11:1–16. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 12166442]

  • Chung CS, Lehmann LS. Informed consent and the process of cadaver donation. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 2002;126:964–68. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 12171497]

  • Coleman N, Brieva J, Crowfoot E. Identification of a realistic donation after cardiac death (DCD) donor: predicting time of death within 60 minutes following withdrawal of futile life sustaining treatment. Transplant Nurses’ Journal. 2008;17:22–26. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it.

  • Colpart JJ, Bouttin B, Guillot B, Maillefaud B, Marion A, Saury G, Leone C, Minarro D, Moskovtchenko JF. Logistics and management for improvement of multiorgan procurement from potential brain-dead donors. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:264–65. Reason for Exclusion: looking at organ retrieval rather than identification. [PubMed: 8644214]

  • Criteria for organ donors. IMJ - Illinois Medical Journal. 1987;171:309–10. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 2886460]

  • Denny DW. Now more than ever, doctors must help in finding organ donors. Medical World News. 1983;24:110. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 11645486]

  • DeVita MA, Brooks MM, Zawistowski C, Rudich S, Daly B, Chaitin E. Donors after cardiac death: validation of identification criteria (DVIC) study for predictors of rapid death. American Journal of Transplantation. 2008;8:432–41. Reason for Exclusion: looking at using specific criteria to predict death within 60 minutes after withdrawal of life support. [PubMed: 18190657]

  • DeVita MA, Snyder JV. Development of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center policy for the care of terminally ill patients who may become organ donors after death following the removal of life support. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 1993;3:131–43. Reason for Exclusion: description of services and not evaluation. [PubMed: 10126526]

  • DeVita MA, Webb SA, Hurford WE, Truog RD, Wlody GS, Hayden CT, Sprung CL, Brilli RJ, Beals DA, Rothenberg DM, Friedman AL, Silverstein DS, Kaufman DC, Perkin RM, Rosenbaum SH, Cist AFM, Samotowka M, Teres D, Unkle DW, Burns JP, Wallace TE. Recommendations for nonheartbeating organ donation. Critical Care Medicine. 2001;29:1826–31. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • DeYoung S, Temmler L, Adams EF, Just G. Organ referrals--would nurses do more if they knew more? Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing. 1991;22:219–21. Reason for Exclusion: survey of nurses but not on clinical triggers or care pathway. [PubMed: 1909726]

  • Douglas S. Factors affecting cadaveric organ donation: a national survey of organ procurement coordinators. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1994;4:96–103. Reason for Exclusion: for q2.

  • Durall AL, Laussen PC, Randolph AG. Potential for donation after cardiac death in a children’s hospital. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e219–e224. Reason for Exclusion: looks at identification of potential donors after DCD. [PubMed: 17200246]

  • Edwards J, Mulvania P, Robertson V, George G, Hasz R, Nathan H, D’Alessandro A. Maximizing organ donation opportunities through donation after cardiac death. Critical Care Nurse. 2006;26:101–15. [Review] [25 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16565285]

  • Edwards JM, Hasz RD Jr, Robertson VM. Non-heart-beating organ donation: process and review. AACN Clinical Issues. 1999;10:293–300. [Review] [21 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10578715]

  • Ehrle R. Timely referral of potential organ donors. Critical Care Nurse. 2006;26:88–93. [Review] [36 refs][Reprint in Prog Transplant. 2008 Mar;18(1):17–21; PMID: 18429577] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16565283]

  • Ehrle RN, Shafer TJ, Nelson KR. Referral, request, and consent for organ donation: best practice--a blueprint for success. Critical Care Nurse. 1932;19:21–30. [Review] [66 refs] Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it. [PubMed: 10401299]

  • Evans RW, Orians CE, Ascher NL. The potential supply of organ donors. An assessment of the efficacy of organ procurement efforts in the United States. JAMA. 1992;267:239–46. Reason for Exclusion: used certain criteria to identify donors and also looked at donor procurement. [PubMed: 1727520]

  • Fecteau A, Atkinson P, Grant D. Early referral is essential for successful pediatric small bowel transplantation: The Canadian experience. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2001;36:681–84. Reason for Exclusion: looking at outcomes of patients who undergo small bowel transplantation. [PubMed: 11329565]

  • Ferguson M, Zuk J. Organ donation after cardiac death: A new trend in pediatrics. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2003;37:219–20. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 12971358]

  • Freebury DR. The psychological implications of organ transplantation. A selective review. Canadian Psychiatric Association Journal. 1974;19:593–97. [Review] [16 refs] Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 4613453]

  • Frezza EE, Krefski LR, Valenziano CP. Factors influencing the potential organ donation: a 6-yr experience of the New Jersey Organ and Tissue Sharing Network. Clinical Transplantation. 1999;13:231–40. Reason for Exclusion: doesn’t show how to increase donor identification. [PubMed: 10383103]

  • Frutos MA, Ruiz P, Requena MV, Daga D. Family refusal in organ donation: Analysis of three patterns. Transplantation Proceedings. 2002;34:2513–14. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 12431506]

  • Gabel H. Continuous registration of potential cadaveric donors in Sweden, May 1989–December 1991. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1993;3:134–38. Reason for Exclusion: not a study.

  • Gabel H, Roels L. Legislative initiatives to increase donation. Transplantation Proceedings. 1997;29:3223. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 9414687]

  • Garcia VD, Garcia CD, Keitel E, Santos AF, Bianco PD, Bittar AE, Neumann J, Campos HH, Pestana JOM, Abbud-Filho M. Expanding criteria for the use of living donors: What are the limits? Transplantation Proceedings. 2004;36:808–10. Reason for Exclusion: looking at living donors which is not part of our population. [PubMed: 15194278]

  • Glasson J, Plows CW, Tenery J, Clarke OW, Ruff V, Fuller D, Kliger CH, Wilkins J, Cosgriff J, Orentlicher D, Harwood K, Leslie J. Strategies for cadaveric organ procurement: Mandated choice and presumed consent. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1994;272:809–12. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 8078146]

  • Gravel MT, Szeman P. Increasing referrals and donations using the Transplant Center Development Model. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1996;6:32–36. Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral in the study. [PubMed: 9157929]

  • Gronda EG, Barbieri P, Frigerio M, Mangiavacchi M, Oliva F, Quaini E, Andreuzzi B, Garascia A, De VC, Pellegrini A. Prognostic indices in heart transplant candidates after the first hospitalization triggered by the need for intravenous pharmacologic circulatory support. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation. 1999;18:654–63. Reason for Exclusion: looking at interventions to improve outcomes in patients with endstage heart failure. [PubMed: 10452341]

  • Hagan ME, McClean D, Falcone CA, Arrington J, Matthews D, Summe C. Attaining specific donor management goals increases number of organs transplanted per donor: a quality improvement project. Progress in Transplantation. 2009;19:227–31. Reason for Exclusion: not looking at clinical triggers but rather change in processes to increase identification. [PubMed: 19813484]

  • Hardison J, Schears RM. Organ donation after cardiac death: a reexamination of healthcare provider attitudes. Critical Care Medicine. 2007;35:2666–67. Reason for Exclusion: letter to editor. [PubMed: 18075387]

  • Hassan TB, Joshi M, Quinton DN, Elwell R, Baines J, Bell PR. Role of the accident and emergency department in the non-heart-beating donor programme in Leicester. Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine. 1996;13:321–24. Reason for Exclusion: not looking at clinical triggers and no baseline comparison. [PMC free article: PMC1342764] [PubMed: 8894856]

  • Henderson SO, Chao JL, Green D, Leinen R, Mallon WK. Organ procurement in an urban level I emergency department. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 1998;31:466–70. Reason for Exclusion: looking at benefits of educating staff to increase identification. [PubMed: 9546015]

  • Jouan MC, Decaris J, Bicocchi C, Joseph L, Claquin J, Villiers S. Analysis of organ donation refusal. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:388–89. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 8644283]

  • Keenan SP, Hoffmaster B, Rutledge F, Eberhard J, Chen LM, Sibbald WJ. Attitudes regarding organ donation from non-heart-beating donors. Journal of Critical Care. 1937;17:29–36. Reason for Exclusion: looking at attitudes of the public towards organ donation. [PubMed: 12040546]

  • Kittur DS, McMenamin J, Knott D. Impact of an organ donor and tissue donor advocacy program on community hospitals. American Surgeon. 1990;56:36–39. Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral in the study. [PubMed: 2294810]

  • Kmietowicz Z. Taskforce rejects system of presumed consent for organ donation in UK. BMJ. 2008;337:a2621. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it. [PubMed: 19019872]

  • Koenig BA. Dead donors and the “shortage” of human organs: are we missing the point? American Journal of Bioethics. 2003;3:26–27. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 12859838]

  • Kowalski AE, Light JA, Ritchie WO, Sasaki TM, Callender CO, Gage F. A new approach for increasing the organ supply. Clinical Transplantation. 1996;10:t-7. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 8996760]

  • Kozlowski LM. Case study in identification and maintenance of an organ donor. Heart & Lung. 1988;17:366–71. Reason for Exclusion: describes the process of organ donation. [PubMed: 3391788]

  • Kwek TK, Lew TW, Tan HL, Kong S. The transplantable organ shortage in Singapore: has implementation of presumed consent to organ donation made a difference? Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore. 2009;38:346–48. [Review] [30 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 19434338]

  • La SF, Sedda L, Pizzi C, Verlato R, Boselli L, Candiani A, Chiaranda M, Frova G, Gorgerino F, Gravame V, Mapelli A, Martini C, Pappalettera M, Seveso M, Sironi PG. Donor families’ attitude toward organ donation. Transplantation Proceedings. 1993;25:1699–701. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 8442242]

  • Lawton RL, Davis J. Importance of recent legislation regarding the recognition of brain death, and the identification of organ donors. Journal of the Iowa Medical Society. 1977;67:11–13. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 833452]

  • Leslie GD. The “Spanish Model”--an initiative aimed at increasing organ donation rates in Australia. Australian Critical Care. 1995;8:33–34. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 8704393]

  • Mackersie RC, Bronsther OL, Shackford SR. Organ procurement in patients with fatal head injuries. The fate of the potential donor. Annals of Surgery. 1991;213:143–50. Reason for Exclusion: looks at organ procurement rather than identification. [PMC free article: PMC1358387] [PubMed: 1992941]

  • Martinez JM, Lopez JS, Martin A, Martin MJ, Scandroglio B, Martin JM. Organ donation and family decision-making within the Spanish donation system. Social Science & Medicine. 2001;53:405–21. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 11459393]

  • Matesanz R, Bozzi G, Saviozzi AR, Ferrini PL, Cardone A, Tuscany Nurse TC. How to evaluate organ donation: the quality programme in Tuscany. Edtna-Erca Journal. 2004;30:38–41. Reason for Exclusion: looking at implementing better processes to improve identification. [PubMed: 15163034]

  • Molzahn AE. Knowledge and attitudes of critical care nurses regarding organ donation. Canadian Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 1997;8:13–19. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 9281922]

  • O’Brien RL, Serbin MF, O’Brien KD, Maier RV, Grady MS. Improvement in the organ donation rate at a large urban trauma center. Archives of Surgery. 1996;131:153–59. Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral in the study. [PubMed: 8611071]

  • Opdam HI, Silvester W. Erratum: “Potential for organ donation in Victoria: An audit of hospital deaths” Medical Journal of Australia. 2006;185:408. (Medical Journal of Australia (2006) vol. 185 (250–254)) Reason for Exclusion: letter to editor. [PubMed: 16948619]

  • Pearson IY. The potential organ donor. Medical Journal of Australia. 1993;158:45–47. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 8417293]

  • Pearson IY, Bazeley P, Spencer-Plane T, Chapman JR, Robertson P. A survey of families of brain dead patients: Their experiences, attitudes to organ donation and transplantation. Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 1995;23:88–95. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 7778754]

  • Prottas J. Shifting responsibilities in organ procurement: a plan for routine referral. JAMA. 1988;260:832–33. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 3392816]

  • Quaghebeur B, van GF, Roels L, Daenen W, van den Berghe G. Potential for Hb and nHb organ donation: a retrospective medical record review on 7 critical care units in a 1900 bed hospital. CONNECT: The World of Critical Care Nursing. 2005;4:85–87. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it.

  • Ranjan D, Schmonsky K, Johnston T, Jeon H, Bouneva I, Erway E. Financial analysis of potential donor management at a medicare-approved transplant hospital. American Journal of Transplantation. 2006;6:199–204. Reason for Exclusion: looking at financial incentives and organ donation. [PubMed: 16433775]

  • Razek T, Olthoff K, Reilly PM. Issues in potential organ donor management. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2000;80:1021–32. [Review] [75 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10897276]

  • Rios A, Conesa C, Ramirez P, Galindo PJ, Rodriguez JM, Rodriguez MM, Martinez L, Parrilla P. Redes Tematicas de Investigacion Cooperativa: Estrategias para Optimizar los Resultados en Donacion Attitudes of resident doctors toward different types of organ donation in a Spanish transplant hospital. Transplantation Proceedings. 2006;38:869–74. Reason for Exclusion: looks at attitudes of resident doctors towards organ donation. [PubMed: 16647495]

  • Rios A, Lopez-Navas A, Ayala MA, Sebastian MJ, Martinez-Alarcon L, Ramirez EJ, Munoz G, Camacho A, Lopez-Lopez A, Rodriguez JS, Martinez MA, Nieto A, Ramirez P, Parrilla P. Attitudes of Spanish and Mexican resident physicians faced with solid organ donation and transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings. 2010;42:233–38. Reason for Exclusion: looks at attitudes towards organ donation and not identification. [PubMed: 20172318]

  • Rios ZA, Ramirez P, Martinez L, Montoya MJ, Lucas D, Alcaraz J, Rodriguez MM, Rodriguez JM, Parrilla P. Are personnel in transplant hospitals in favor of cadaveric organ donation? Multivariate attitudinal study in a hospital with a solid organ transplant program. Clinical Transplantation. 2006;20:743–54. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 17100725]

  • Roth BJ, Sher L, Murray JA, Belzberg H, Mateo R, Heeran A, Romero J, Mone T, Chan L, Selby R. Cadaveric organ donor recruitment at Los Angeles County Hospital: improvement after formation of a structured clinical, educational and administrative service. Clinical Transplantation. 2003;17 Suppl-7 Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral in the study. [PubMed: 12795670]

  • Roza BA, Pestana JO, Barbosa SF, Schirmer J. Organ donation procedures: an epidemiological study. Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif) 2010;20:88–95. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 20397352]

  • Roza BA, Pestana JO, Barbosa SF, Schirmer J. Organ donation procedures: an epidemiological study. Progress in Transplantation. 2010;20:88–95. Reason for Exclusion: duplicate. [PubMed: 20397352]

  • Rutter N, Mann NP, Watson AR. Organ donation. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 1989;64:875–78. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PMC free article: PMC1792550] [PubMed: 2774623]

  • Sade RM, Kay N, Pitzer S, Drake P, Baliga P, Haines S. Increasing organ donation: a successful new concept. Transplantation. 2002;74:1142–46. Reason for Exclusion: looking at identifying potential donors using counselling and education services. [PubMed: 12438961]

  • Saeed B, Derani R, Hajibrahim M, Roumani J, Al-Shaer MB, Saeed R, Damerli S, Al-Saadi R, Kayyal B, Haddad M. Organ failure in Syria: initiating a national deceased donation program. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases & Transplantation. 2007;18:270–276. [Review] [34 refs] Reason for Exclusion: looking at liking organ donation failure and a national programme. [PubMed: 17496410]

  • Saeed B, Derani R, Hajibrahim M, Roumani J, Al-Shaer MB, Saeed R, Damerli S, Al-Saadi R, Kayyal B, Haddad M. Volume of organ failure in Syria and obstacles to initiate a national cadaver donation program. Iranian journal of Kidney Diseases. 2008;2:65–71. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 19377211]

  • Salih MA, Harvey I, Frankel S, Coupe DJ, Webb M, Cripps HA. Potential availability of cadaver organs for transplantation. BMJ. 1991;302:1053–55. Reason for Exclusion: looking at using specific criteria to identify donors for kidney transplantation. [PMC free article: PMC1669650] [PubMed: 2036502]

  • Salim A, Velmahos GC, Brown C, Belzberg H, Demetriades D. Aggressive organ donor management significantly increases the number of organs available for transplantation. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 2005;58:991–94. Reason for Exclusion: looking at implementing better management of potential donors to increase donation rather than clinical triggers. [PubMed: 15920414]

  • Sanner MA. Two perspectives on organ donation: experiences of potential donor families and intensive care physicians of the same event. Journal of Critical Care. 2007;22:296–304. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 18086400]

  • Shafer T, Hueneke M, Wolff S, Davis K, Ehrle R, Van BC, Orlowski J, White C. The Texas Nondonor Hospital Project: a preliminary report on the impact of inhouse coordinators on organ donation rates in nondonor hospitals. Transplantation Proceedings. 1997;29:3261–62. Reason for Exclusion: a report on a paper. [PubMed: 9414708]

  • Shafer TJ, Van Buren CT, Andrews CA. Program development and routine notification in a large, independent OPO: a 12-year review. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1999;9:40–49. Reason for Exclusion: comment on another study. [PubMed: 10401362]

  • Shaw AB. Non-therapeutic (elective) ventilation of potential organ donors: the ethical basis for changing the law. Journal of Medical Ethics. 1996;22:72–77. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PMC free article: PMC1376916] [PubMed: 8731531]

  • Shemie SD, Baker AJ, Knoll G, Wall W, Rocker G, Howes D, Davidson J, Pagliarello J, Chambers-Evans J, Cockfield S, Farrell C, Glannon W, Gourlay W, Grant D, Langevin S, Wheelock B, Young K, Dossetor J. National recommendations for donation after cardiocirculatory death in Canada: Donation after cardiocirculatory death in Canada. CMAJ Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2006;175:S1. Reason for Exclusion: background. [PMC free article: PMC1635157] [PubMed: 17124739]

  • Shirley S, Cutler J, Heymann C, Hart M. Narrowing the organ donation gap: hospital development methods that maximize hospital donation potential. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation. 1994;13:817–23. Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral in the study. [PubMed: 7803422]

  • Siminoff LA, Arnold RM, Hewlett J. The process of organ donation and its effect on consent. Clinical Transplantation. 2001;15:39–47. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 11168314]

  • Siminoff LA, Lawrence RH. Knowing patients' preferences about organ donation: does it make a difference? Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 2002;53:754–60. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 12394879]

  • Siminoff LA, Traino HM. Improving donation outcomes: hospital development and the Rapid Assessment of Hospital Procurement Barriers in Donation. Progress in Transplantation. 2009;19:180–187. Reason for Exclusion: looking at barriers to organ donation. [PubMed: 19588669]

  • Singer P, Rachmani R. Improving attitude and knowledge of healthcare professionals towards organ donation in Israel: results of 12 European donor hospital education programs. Transplantation Proceedings. 1997;29:3244–45. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 9414697]

  • Sohrabi S, Navarro A, Asher J, Wilson C, Sanni A, Wyrley-Birch H, Anand V, Reddy M, Rix D, Jacques B, Manas D, Talbot D. Agonal period in potential non-heart-beating donors. Transplantation Proceedings. 2006;38:2629–30. Reason for Exclusion: looks at time interval for retrieval of organs. [PubMed: 17098020]

  • Soifer BE, Gelb AW. The multiple organ donor: Identification and management. Annals of Internal Medicine. 1989;110:814–23. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 2653155]

  • Studer SM, Orens JB. Cadaveric donor selection and management. Respiratory Care Clinics of North America. 2004;10:459–71. [Review] [51 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 15585178]

  • Studer SM, Orens JB. Cadaveric donor selection and management. Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2006;27:492–500. Reason for Exclusion: duplicate. [PubMed: 17072797]

  • Sullivan H, Blakely D, Davis K. An in-house coordinator program to increase organ donation in public teaching hospitals. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1998;8:40–42. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can't find it. [PubMed: 9726219]

  • Sutherland S. Nurse coordinator--European experience organizing development in UK transplant--a nurse-based system. Transplantation Proceedings. 2003;35:992–94. Reason for Exclusion: a report. [PubMed: 12947831]

  • Tenn-Lyn NA, Doig CJ, Shemie SD, Teitelbaum J, Cass DE. Potential organ donors referred to Ontario neurosurgical centres. Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2006;53:732–36. Reason for Exclusion: not using clinical triggers or required referral in the study. [PubMed: 16803923]

  • UNOS criteria identify candidates for organ donation after cardiac death. Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology. 2008;4:242. Reason for Exclusion: expert comment on a study.

  • Waller JA, Haisch CE, Skelly JM. Potential availability of transplantable organs according to factors associated with type of injury event. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 1992;24:193–200. Reason for Exclusion: looking at viability of transplantable organs from different sources. [PubMed: 1558628]

  • Waller JA, Haisch CE, Skelly JM, Goldberg CG. Potential availability of transplantable organs and tissues in fatalities from injury and nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage. Transplantation. 1993;55:542–46. Reason for Exclusion: studying time intervals between retrieval and identification of organs. [PubMed: 8456475]

  • Wight C. Two initiatives designed to maximize the potential for organ donation from intensive care units. Annals of Transplantation. 1998;3:13–17. Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 9869884]

  • Wight C, Cohen B, Miranda B, Fernandez M, Beasley C. Hospital attitudes: preliminary findings from donor action pilot projects. Transplant International. 1998;11 Suppl-9 Reason for Exclusion: for q5. [PubMed: 9665025]

  • Williams MA, Lipsett PA, Rushton CH, Grochowski EC, Berkowitz ID, Mann SL, Shatzer JH, Short MP, Genel M. Council on Scientific Affairs, AMA The physician's role in discussing organ donation with families. Critical Care Medicine. 2003;31:1568–73. [Review] [39 refs] Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 12771634]

Review question 2

  • Brain death cases reported, medically documented, families approached, consented for donation and harvested from different hospitals in Saudi Arabia in 2005. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases & Transplantation. 2006;17:262–70. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 16903638]

  • Brain death cases reported, medically documented, families approached, consented for donation and harvested from different hospitals in Saudi Arabia in 2006. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases & Transplantation. 2007;18:287–98. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 17612041]

  • Strategies for cadaveric organ procurement Mandated choice and presumed consent. Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association. JAMA. 1994;272:809–12. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 8078146]

  • Abadie A, Gay S. The impact of presumed consent legislation on cadaveric organ donation: a cross-country study. Journal of Health Economics. 2006;25:599–620. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16490267]

  • Abbing HD. Organ donation, the legal framework. Health Policy. 1990;16:105–15. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10108670]

  • Abouna GM. Organ shortage crisis: problems and possible solutions. Transplantation Proceedings. 2008;40:34–38. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 18261540]

  • Afonso RC, Pinheiro R, Santos-Junior PRM, Bussolaro RA, Ferraz-Neto BH, Roza B, Freitas JE, Lessa B. Notifying potential donors: Perspective of help from the intra-hospital transplantation committee. Transplantation Proceedings. 2002;34:445–46. Reason for Exclusion: looks at identification rather than consent. [PubMed: 12009584]

  • Aksoy S. A critical approach to the current understanding of Islamic scholars on using cadaver organs without prior permission. Bioethics. 2001;15:461–72. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 12058770]

  • Al-Mousawi M, Hamed T, al-Matouk H. Views of Muslim scholars on organ donation and brain death. Transplantation Proceedings. 1997;29:3217. Reason for Exclusion: looking at views of Muslim scholars towards organ donation and not consent. [PubMed: 9414684]

  • Aldridge A, Guy BS. Deal breakers in the organ donation request process. Health Marketing Quarterly. 2008;23:17–31. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 19042510]

  • Barber K, Falvey S, Hamilton C, Collett D, Rudge C. Potential for organ donation in the United Kingdom: audit of intensive care records. BMJ. 2006;332:1124–27. Reason for Exclusion: looks at potential for organ donation and not consent. [PMC free article: PMC1459557] [PubMed: 16641118]

  • Beaulieu D. Organ donation: the family's right to make an informed choice. Journal of Neuroscience Nursing. 1999;31:37–42. [Review] [25 refs] Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 10207831]

  • Benoit G, Spira A, Nicoulet I, Moukarzel M. Presumed consent law: results of its application/outcome from an epidemiologic survey. Transplantation Proceedings. 1990;22:320–322. Reason for Exclusion: looking at presumed consent law which is not practiced in UK. [PubMed: 2326899]

  • Bernat JL, D'Alessandro AM, Port FK, Bleck TP, Heard SO, Medina J, Rosenbaum SH, DeVita MA, Gaston RS, Merion RM, Barr ML, Marks WH, Nathan H, O'Connor K, Rudow DL, Leichtman AB, Schwab P, Ascher NL, Metzger RA, Mc BV, Graham W, Wagner D, Warren J, Delmonico FL. Report of a national conference on donation after cardiac death. American Journal of Transplantation. 2006;6:281–91. Reason for Exclusion: report of a conference. [PubMed: 16426312]

  • Bledsoe CM. Factors influencing the decision of families to donate organs. jj. 1994. NaN. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can't find it.

  • Blok GA, Morton J, Morley M, Kerckhoffs CC, Kootstra G, van der Vleuten CP. Requesting organ donation: the case of self-efficacy--effects of the European Donor Hospital Education Programme (EDHEP) Advances in Health Sciences Education. 2004;9:261–82. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 15583482]

  • Blok GA. The impact of changes in practice in organ procurement on the satisfaction of donor relatives. Patient Education & Counseling. 2005;58:104–13. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can't find it. [PubMed: 15950843]

  • Brazier M. Organ retention and return: problems of consent. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2003;29:30–33. Reason for Exclusion: a symposium presentation. [PMC free article: PMC1733681] [PubMed: 12569192]

  • Caillouet-O'Neal C, Booker QG. Converting family advocates to level 1 recovery coordinators. Transplantation Proceedings. 2008;40:1041–43. Reason for Exclusion: looking at effects of family advocates on recovery of organs. [PubMed: 18555110]

  • Carey I, Forbes K. The experiences of donor families in the hospice. Palliative Medicine. 2003;17:241–47. Reason for Exclusion: looking at tissue donation. [PubMed: 12725477]

  • Cheng B, Ho C-P, Ho S, Wong A. An overview on attitudes towards organ donation in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology. 2005;7:77–81. Reason for Exclusion: looking at general attitudes towards organ donation rather than consent.

  • Cheung AH, Alden DL, Wheeler MS. Cultural attitudes of Asian-Americans toward death adversely impact organ donation. Transplantation Proceedings. 1998;30:3609–10. Reason for Exclusion: looking at cultural differences in attitude towards organ donation. [PubMed: 9838580]

  • Choo V. UK Shariah Council approves organ transplants. Lancet. 1995:346–303. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 11644718]

  • Christmas AB, Mallico EJ, Burris GW, Bogart TA, Norton HJ, Sing RF. A paradigm shift in the approach to families for organ donation: Honoring patients' wishes versus request for permission in patients with department of motor vehicles donor designations. Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 2008;65:1507–9. Reason for Exclusion: looking at honouring patient's wishes rather than asking for permission from relatives which is not practiced in the UK. [PubMed: 19077650]

  • Chrysler GR. Consent for cadaver organ and tissue donation. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1998;8:72–73. Reason for Exclusion: letter to editor. [PubMed: 9727098]

  • Chung CS, Lehmann LS. Informed consent and the process of cadaver donation. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine. 2002;126:964–68. Reason for Exclusion: setting is medical school and not hospitals. [PubMed: 12171497]

  • Chung CS, Lehmann LS. Informed consent and the process of cadaver donation. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine. 2002;126:964–68. Reason for Exclusion: setting is medical school and not hospitals and duplicate. [PubMed: 12171497]

  • Collins M. Consent for organ retrieval cannot be presumed. HEC Forum. 2009;21:71–106. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 19255729]

  • Dimond B. Law concerning organ transplants and dead donors in the UK. British Journal of Nursing. 2005;14:47–48. [Review] [4 refs] Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 15750490]

  • Duguet AM, Pujos M, Le TA, Gilbert-Calvet C, Grezes-Rueff C. Organ removal from children and minors. Information and parents' consent. Acta Medicinae Legalis et Socialis. 1987;37:53–58. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 2979419]

  • Ebrahim AF. Organ transplantation: contemporary Sunni Muslim legal and ethical perspectives. Bioethics. 1995;9:291–302. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 11653045]

  • Floden A, Kelvered M, Frid I, Backman L. Causes why organ donation was not carried out despite the deceased being positive to donation. Transplantation Proceedings. 2006;38:2619–21. [Review] [20 refs] Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 17098016]

  • Gallagher C. Religious attitudes regarding organ donation. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1996;6:186–91. Reason for Exclusion: looks at religious attitudes towards organ donation and not consent. [PubMed: 9188382]

  • Gallagher C. Religious attitudes regarding organ donation. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1996;6:186–90. [Review] [17 refs] Reason for Exclusion: looks at religious attitudes towards organ donation and not consent. [PubMed: 9188382]

  • Glasson J, Plows CW, Tenery J, Clarke OW, Ruff V, Fuller D, Kliger CH, Wilkins J, Cosgriff J, Orentlicher D, Harwood K, Leslie J. Strategies for cadaveric organ procurement: Mandated choice and presumed consent. Journal of the American Medical Association. 1994;272:809–12. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 8078146]

  • Gore SM, Hinds CJ, Rutherford AJ. Organ donation from intensive care units in England. BMJ. 1989;299:1193–97. Reason for Exclusion: looking at identification of donors. [PMC free article: PMC1838079] [PubMed: 2513048]

  • Griffith R, Tengnah C. Consent to organ donation part 1: the current arrangements. British Journal of Community Nursing. 2009;14:544–47. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 20216500]

  • Hardison J, Schears RM. Organ donation after cardiac death: A reexamination of healthcare provider attitudes. Critical Care Medicine. 2007;35:2666. [3] Reason for Exclusion: letter to editor. [PubMed: 18075387]

  • Harrison CH, Laussen PC. Controversy and consensus on pediatric donation after cardiac death: ethical issues and institutional process. Transplantation Proceedings. 2008;40:1044–47. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 18555111]

  • Hoehn KS, Frader JE. Approaching parents for organ donation: Who and when? Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2008;9:234–35. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 18327127]

  • Howard DH, Siminoff LA, McBride V, Lin M. Does quality improvement work? Evaluation of the organ donation breakthrough collaborative. Health Services Research. 2007;42:2160–2173. Reason for Exclusion: looking at effects of best practices on conversion of potential donors becoming actual donors rather than obtaining consent. [PMC free article: PMC2151398] [PubMed: 17995558]

  • Jansen NE, Haase-Kromwijk BJ, van Leiden HA, Weimar W, Hoitsma AJ. A plea for uniform European definitions for organ donor potential and family refusal rates. Transplant International. 2009;22:1064–72. Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 19686462]

  • Johnson R, Reid S, Lichty S, Edelstein C, Stuber J. Helping a family through the organ donation process. Nursing. 2000;30:52–55. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10797717]

  • Knowles D. Parents' consent to the post-mortem removal and retention of organs. Journal of Applied Philosophy. 2001;18:215–27. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 11981990]

  • Leflar RB. Informed consent and patients' rights in Japan. Houston Law Review. 1996;33:1–112. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16211759]

  • Lock M. Cultural aspects of organ donation and transplantation. Transplantation Proceedings. 1999;31:1345–46. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10083596]

  • Lombardo PA. Consent and "donations' from the dead. Hastings Center Report. 1981;11:9–11. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 7333842]

  • Marks WH, Wagner D, Pearson TC, Orlowski JP, Nelson PW, McGowan JJ, Guidinger MK, Burdick J. Organ donation and utilization, 1995–2004: Entering the collaborative era. American Journal of Transplantation. 2006;6:1101–10. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16613590]

  • Matesanz R, Dominguez-Gil B. Strategies to optimize deceased organ donation. Transplantation Reviews. 2007;21:177–88. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • Mavroforou A, Giannoukas A, Michalodimitrakis E. Consent for organ and tissue retention in British law in the light of the Human Tissue Act 2004. Medicine & Law. 2006;25:427–34. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 17078517]

  • Mavroforou A, Giannoukas A, Michalodimitrakis E. Consent for organ and tissue retention in british law in the light of the human tissue act 2004. Medicine and Law. 2006;25:427–34. Reason for Exclusion: general background and duplicate. [PubMed: 17078517]

  • Metzger RA, Taylor GJ, McGaw LJ, Weber PG, Delmonico FL, Prottas JM. UNOS Research to Practice Steering Committee. Research to practice: a national consensus conference. Progress in Transplantation. 2005;15:379–84. [9 refs] Reason for Exclusion: conference findings. [PubMed: 16477821]

  • Montefusco CM, Levine S, Goldsmith J, Veith FJ. Obtaining consent for organ donation. Hospital Physician. 1985;21:46–50. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10274807]

  • Morgan V. Brain stem death testing and consent for cadaveric organ donation. Care of the Critically Ill. 1995;11:20–22. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • Morgan SE, Harrison TR, Long SD, Afifi WA, Stephenson MT, Reichert T. Family discussions about organ donation: how the media influences opinions about donation decisions. Clinical Transplantation. 2005;19:674–82. [Erratum appears in Clin Transplant. 2005 Dec;19(6):848 Note: Stephenson, Michael S [corrected to Stephenson, Michael T]] Reason for Exclusion: setting is not hospitals but rather homes. [PubMed: 16146561]

  • Morton J. In support of the consent process for organ donation from deceased persons. New Zealand Medical Journal. 2004;117:U1041. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 15476001]

  • Noury D, Carre P, Auger E, Le Sant JN, Pinault MF, Jacob F. Preliminary results of a survey on the information of families of organ and tissue donors. Transplantation Proceedings. 1995;27:1660–1661. Reason for Exclusion: complete results not reported. [PubMed: 7725442]

  • Olick RS. Approximating informed consent and fostering communication: the anatomy of an advance directive. Journal of Clinical Ethics. 1991;2:181–89. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 1773111]

  • Opdam HI, Silvester W. Potential for organ donation in Victoria: An audit of hospital deaths. Medical Journal of Australia. 2006;185:250–254. Reason for Exclusion: looking at identification of potential donors rather than obtaining consent. [PubMed: 16948619]

  • Pellegrino ED. Families' self-interest and the cadaver's organs. What price consent? JAMA. 1991;265:1305–6. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 1995980]

  • Rady MY, Verheijde JL, Ali MS. Islam and end-of-life practices in organ donation for transplantation: New questions and serious sociocultural consequences. HEC Forum. 2009;21:175–205. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 19551348]

  • Ridley S, Bonner S, Bray K, Falvey S, Mackay J, Manara A, Bodenham A, Dougall J, Doyle P, Farquhar I, McElligot M, Pittard A, Rudge C, Taylor B, Tollerton H, Tullet W. UK guidance for non-heart-beating donation. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2005;95:592–95. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16183683]

  • Robinette MA. Organ donation: Resource requirements and consent for donation. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America. 1994;12:635–42. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • Rocheleau CA. Increasing family consent for organ donation: Findings and challenges. Progress in Transplantation. 2001;11:194–200. Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 11949462]

  • Rodrigue JR, Cornell DL, Howard RJ. Attitudes toward financial incentives, donor authorization, and presumed consent among next-of-kin who consented vs. refused organ donation. Transplantation. 2006;81:1249–56. Reason for Exclusion: practices looked at are not used in UK. [PMC free article: PMC2275319] [PubMed: 16699449]

  • Roza BA, Pestana JO, Barbosa SF, Schirmer J. Organ donation procedures: an epidemiological study. Progress in transplantation (Aliso Viejo, Calif) 2010;20:88–95. Reason for Exclusion: looks at association between funeral aid and donation. [PubMed: 20397352]

  • Roza BA, Pestana JO, Barbosa SF, Schirmer J. Organ donation procedures: an epidemiological study. Progress in Transplantation. 2010;20:88–95. Reason for Exclusion: looks at association between funeral aid and donation and duplicate. [PubMed: 20397352]

  • Santiago C, Gomez P. Asking for the family consent: analysis and refusals. Transplantation Proceedings. 1997;29:1629–30. Reason for Exclusion: comment on a study. [PubMed: 9123446]

  • Saunders B. Normative consent and opt-out organ donation. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2010;36:84–87. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 20133401]

  • Shafer TJ. Improving relatives’ consent to organ donation. BMJ. 2009;338:1023. Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 19383729]

  • Shaheen FA, Souqiyyeh MZ, Huraib S, al-Khader A, Attar MB, Ibrahim SM, Paul TT, Babiker MA, al-Swailem AR. The causes of family refusal to consent for organ donation from a brain-death relative in Saudi Arabia. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:387. Reason for Exclusion: results incomplete and causes of refusal to consent not mentioned. [PubMed: 8644282]

  • Shaheen FA, al-Khader A, Souqiyyeh MZ, Attar MB, Tayab A, Kurpad RP, al-Swailem AR. Medical causes of failure to obtain consent for organ retrieval from brain-dead donors. Transplantation Proceedings. 1996;28:167–68. Reason for Exclusion: looking at medical causes of failure to obtain consent. [PubMed: 8644159]

  • Sharma K. Organ donation: The patients’ views. Palliative Medicine. 1998;12:302–3. [3] Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 9743831]

  • Sheach Leith VM. Consent and nothing but consent? The organ retention scandal. Sociology of Health & Illness. 2007;29:1023–42. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 18092981]

  • Sills P, Bair HA, Gates L, Janczyk RJ. Donation after cardiac death: lessons learned. Journal of Trauma Nursing. 2007;14:47–50. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 17420653]

  • Singh P, Kumar A, Sharma RK. Factors influencing refusal by relatives of brain-dead patients to give consent for organ donation: experience at a transplant centre. Journal of the Indian Medical Association. 7 A.D.;102:630. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it. [PubMed: 15868874]

  • Spital A. Consent for organ donation: Time for a change. Clinical Transplantation. 1993;7:525–28. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • Spital A. Consent for organ donation: today and tomorrow. Seminars in Dialysis. 1993;6:264–67. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 11654078]

  • Spital A. Obtaining consent for organ donation: What are our options? Bailliere’s Best Practice in Clinical Anaesthesiology. 1999;13:179–93. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • Spital A, Taylor JS. Reconsidering the consent requirement for organ recovery after death. Transplantation. 2008;86:1632–33. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 19077905]

  • Starzl TE. Implied consent for cadaveric organ donation. JAMA. 19 A.D.;251:1592–30. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 6700059]

  • Tavakoli SA, Shabanzadeh AP, Arjmand B, Aghayan SH, Nozary HB, Emami Razavi SH, Bahrami NH. Comparative study of depression and consent among brain death families in donor and nondonor groups from March 2001 to December 2002 in Tehran. Transplantation Proceedings. 2008;40:3299–302. Reason for Exclusion: looking at association between depression and organ donation. [PubMed: 19100376]

  • Thayyil S, Robertson NJ, Scales A, Weber MA, Jacques TS, Sebire NJ, Taylor AM. MaRIAS (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Autopsy Study) Collaborative Group Prospective parental consent for autopsy research following sudden unexpected childhood deaths: a successful model. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2009;94:354–58. Reason for Exclusion: looking at consent for autopsy research purposes. [PubMed: 19282335]

  • Valapour M. Donation after cardiac death: consent is the issue, not death. Journal of Clinical Ethics. 2006;17:137–38. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 16913148]

  • Webster PA, Markham L. Pediatric organ donation: a national survey examining consent rates and characteristics of donor hospitals. Pediatric Critical Care Medicine. 2009;10:500–504. Reason for Exclusion: looking at relationship between identification and consent rates and no reasons stated for low consent rates. [PubMed: 19307821]

  • Wendler D, Dickert N. The consent process for cadaveric organ procurement: how does it work? How can it be improved? JAMA. 2001;285:329–33. Reason for Exclusion: doesn’t describe the consent process or factors influencing them. [PubMed: 11176844]

  • West R, Burr G. Why families deny consent to organ donation. Australian Critical Care. 2002;15:27–32. Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 11979987]

  • Wicclair MR. Informed consent and research involving the newly dead. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 2002;12:351–72. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 12645612]

  • Wilkinson TM. Individual and family consent to organ and tissue donation: is the current position coherent? Journal of Medical Ethics. 2005;31:587–90. [Review] [16 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PMC free article: PMC1734036] [PubMed: 16199601]

  • Wilkinson TM. Parental consent and the use of dead children’s bodies. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. 2001;11:337–58. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 11838507]

  • Williams MA, Lipsett PA, Rushton CH, Grochowski EC, Berkowitz ID, Mann SL, Shatzer JH, Short MP, Genel M. Council on Scientific Affairs, AMA. The physician’s role in discussing organ donation with families. Critical Care Medicine. 2003;31:1568–73. [Review] [39 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 12771634]

Review question 3

  • Aldridge A, Guy BS. Deal breakers in the organ donation request process. Health Marketing Quarterly. 2008;23:17–31. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 19042510]

  • Arnold RM, Youngner SJ. Time is of the essence: the pressing need for comprehensive non-heart-beating cadaveric donation policies. Transplantation Proceedings. 2917;27:2913–17. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 7482964]

  • Bell MD. Non-heartbeating organ donation: clinical process and fundamental issues. British Journal of Anaesthesia. 2005;94:474–78. Reason for Exclusion: looking at entire donation process rather than timing for consent. [PubMed: 15591330]

  • Bernat JL. The boundaries of organ donation after circulatory death. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;359:669–71. Reason for Exclusion: not a study. [PubMed: 18703467]

  • Boucek MM, Mashburn C, Dunn SM, Frizell R, Edwards L, Pietra B, Campbell D. Denver Children’s Pediatric Heart Transplant Team Pediatric heart transplantation after declaration of cardiocirculatory death. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008;359:709–14. Reason for Exclusion: looking at success of heart transplantation in children. [PubMed: 18703473]

  • Bousso RS. The family decision-making process concerning consent for donating their child’s organs: a substantive theory. Texto & Contexto Enfermagem. 2008;17:45–55. [Portuguese] Reason for Exclusion: not in English.

  • Brown CV, Foulkrod KH, Dworaczyk S, Thompson K, Elliot E, Cooper H, Coopwood B. Barriers to obtaining family consent for potential organ donors. Journal of Trauma-Injury Infection & Critical Care. 2010;68:447–51. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 20154557]

  • Caillouet-O’Neal C, Booker QG. Converting family advocates to level 1 recovery coordinators. Transplantation Proceedings. 2008;40:1041–43. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 18555110]

  • Chapman JR, Hibberd AD, McCosker C, Thompson JF, Ross W, Mahony J, Byth P, MacDonald GJ. Obtaining consent for organ donation in nine NSW metropolitan hospitals. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care. 1995;23:81–87. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 7778753]

  • Chatterjee SN, Payne JE, Berne TV. Difficulties in obtaining kidneys from potential postmortem donors. JAMA. 1975;232:822–24. Reason for Exclusion: looking at obtaining kidneys only from donors. [PubMed: 1091760]

  • Cohen MC, Blakey S, Donn T, McGovern S, Parry L. An audit of parents’/guardians’ wishes recorded after coronial autopsies in cases of sudden unexpected death in infancy: issues raised and future directions. Medicine, Science & the Law. 2009;49:179–84. Reason for Exclusion: looking at wishes recorded after autopsy and not donation. [PubMed: 19787989]

  • De Cabo FM, Cabrer C, Paredes D, Navarro A, Trias E, Manyalich M. Timing comparison of donation process after the New Real decreto of transplantation in Spain. Transplantation Proceedings. 2002;34:18. Reason for Exclusion: looking at effects of new criteria to diagnose BSD and transplantation. [PubMed: 11959169]

  • De WJ, Stirton L. Advance commitment: an alternative approach to the family veto problem in organ procurement. Journal of Medical Ethics. 2010;36:180–184. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 20212000]

  • DeVita MA, Snyder JV, Arnold RM, Siminoff LA. Observations of withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment from patients who became non-heart-beating organ donors. Critical Care Medicine. 2000;28:1709–12. Reason for Exclusion: looking at observations made to confirm brain death. [PubMed: 10890607]

  • Douglas S. Factors affecting cadaveric organ donation: a national survey of organ procurement coordinators. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1994;4:96–103. Reason for Exclusion: for q2.

  • Durall AL, Laussen PC, Randolph AG. Potential for donation after cardiac death in a children’s hospital. Pediatrics. 2007;119:e219–eNaN. Reason for Exclusion: looking at identification of potential kidney donors. [PubMed: 17200246]

  • Haddow G. Donor and nondonor families’ accounts of communication and relations with healthcare professionals. Progress in Transplantation. 2004;14:41–48. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 15077737]

  • Haire MC, Hinchliff JP. Donation of heart valve tissue: seeking consent and meeting the needs of donor families. Medical Journal of Australia. 1996;164:28–31. Reason for Exclusion: looking at tissue donation and nor organ donation. [PubMed: 8559092]

  • Hassan TB, Joshi M, Quinton DN, Elwell R, Baines J, Bell PR. Role of the accident and emergency department in the non-heart-beating donor programme in Leicester. Journal of Accident & Emergency Medicine. 1996;13:321–24. Reason for Exclusion: looking at effect of NHBD programme at identification of potential kidney donors. [PMC free article: PMC1342764] [PubMed: 8894856]

  • Helms AK, Torbey MT, Hacein-Bey L, Chyba C, Varelas PN. Standardized protocols increase organ and tissue donation rates in the neurocritical care unit. Neurology. 2004;63:1955–57. Reason for Exclusion: looking at identification rather than timing. [PubMed: 15557523]

  • Howard DH, Siminoff LA, McBride V, Lin M. Does quality improvement work? Evaluation of the organ donation breakthrough collaborative. Health Services Research. 2007;42:2160–2173. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PMC free article: PMC2151398] [PubMed: 17995558]

  • Lawlor M, Kerridge I. Registering wishes about organ and tissue donation: Personal discussion during licence renewal may be superior to online registration. Internal Medicine Journal. 2009;39:835–37. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 20233243]

  • Marks WH, Wagner D, Pearson TC, Orlowski JP, Nelson PW, McGowan JJ, Guidinger MK, Burdick J. Organ donation and utilization, 1995–2004: Entering the collaborative era. American Journal of Transplantation. 2006;6:1101–10. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16613590]

  • Matesanz R, Dominguez-Gil B. Strategies to optimize deceased organ donation. Transplantation Reviews. 2007;21:177–88. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • Montefusco CM, Levine S, Goldsmith J, Veith FJ. Obtaining consent for organ donation. Hospital Physician. 1985;21:46–50. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10274807]

  • Neades BL. Organ donation in A&E: the legal and ethical implications for the A&E nurse. Accident & Emergency Nursing. 2001;9:109–22. [Review] [76 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 11760622]

  • Randhawa G. Specialist nurse training programme: dealing with asking for organ donation. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 1998;28:405–8. Reason for Exclusion: for q4. [PubMed: 9725739]

  • Reich DJ, Mulligan DC, Abt PL, Pruett TL, Abecassis MMI, D’Alessandro A, Pomfret EA, reeman RB, Markmann JF, Hanto DW, Matas AJ, Roberts JP, Merion RM, Klintmalm GBG. ASTS recommended practice guidelines for controlled donation after cardiac death organ procurement and transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation. 2009;9:2004–11. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 19624569]

  • Robinette MA. Organ donation: Resource requirements and consent for donation. Anesthesiology Clinics of North America. 1994;12:635–42. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • Rodrigue JR, Cornell DL, Howard RJ. The instability of organ donation decisions by next-of-kin and factors that predict it. American Journal of Transplantation. 2008;8:2661–67. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PMC free article: PMC2588486] [PubMed: 18853951]

  • Shafer TJ, Ehrle RN, Davis KD, Durand RE, Holtzman SM, Van Buren CT, Crafts NJ, Decker PJ. Increasing organ recovery from level I trauma centers: the in-house coordinator intervention. Progress in Transplantation. 2004;14:250–263. Reason for Exclusion: looking at identification of donors. [PubMed: 15495785]

  • Shih FJ, Lai MK, Lin MH, Lin HY, Tsao CI, Duh BR, Chu SH. The dilemma of “to-be or not-to-be”: needs and expectations of the Taiwanese cadaveric organ donor families during the pre-donation transition. Social Science & Medicine. 2001;53:693–706. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 11511046]

  • Siminoff LA, Nelson KA. The accuracy of hospital reports of organ donation eligibility, requests, and consent: a cross-validation study. Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement. 1999;25:129–36. Reason for Exclusion: looking at identification of potential donors. [PubMed: 10093018]

  • Simpkin AL, Robertson LC, Barber VS, Young JD. Modifiable factors influencing relatives’ decision to offer organ donation: systematic review. BMJ. 2009;338:b991. [Review] [7 refs] Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PMC free article: PMC2671586] [PubMed: 19383730]

  • Siminoff LA. Withdrawal of treatment and organ donation. Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America. 1997;9:85–96. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it. [PubMed: 9136348]

  • Sotillo E, Montoya E, Martinez V, Paz G, Armas A, Liscano C, Hernandez G, Perez M, Andrade A, Villasmil N, Mollegas L, Hernandez E, Milanes CL, Rivas P. Identification of variables that influence brain-dead donors’ family groups regarding refusal. Transplantation Proceedings. 2009;41:3466–70. Reason for Exclusion: for q2. [PubMed: 19857773]

  • Spital A. Consent for organ donation: Time for a change. Clinical Transplantation. 1993;7:525–28. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • West R, Burr G. Why families deny consent to organ donation. Australian Critical Care. 2002;15:27–32. Reason for Exclusion: literature search. [PubMed: 11979987]

Review question 4

  • How to manage vital-organ donors. Nursing. 1999;29:32cc11–13. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it. [PubMed: 10797668]

  • Abdo A, Ugarte JC, Castellanos R, Gonzalez L, Lopez O, Hernandez JC, Valdivia J, Almora E, Suarez O, Diaz J, Collera S, Enamorado A, Vazquez A, Benite P, Dominguez J, Wilford M, Falcon J. The transplantation donation process in the Centro de Investigaciones Medico Quirurgicas of Cuba: 1999–2002. Transplantation Proceedings. 2003;35:1636–37. Reason for Exclusion: not looking at specific role of SNOD in the organ donation care pathway. [PubMed: 12962738]

  • Arbour R. Clinical management of the organ donor. AACN Clinical Issues. 600; 16:551–80. [Review] [86 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16269899]

  • Austen D. Establishing a Queensland wide network for the holistic approach to organ donation and transplantation: the Link Nurse phenomenon. Transplant Journal of Australasia. 2005;14:10–15. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it.

  • Bodenham A, Park GR. Care of the multiple organ donor. Intensive Care Medicine. 1989;15:340–348. [Review] [56 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 2681309]

  • Brody B. What can and cannot be learned from the Pittsburgh experience. Critical Care Medicine. 2000;28:2134–35. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10890679]

  • Brown ME. Clinical management of the organ donor. DCCN - Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 1989;8:134–41. [Review] [25 refs] Reason for Exclusion: narrative review. [PubMed: 2656149]

  • Cohen J, Ami SB, Ashkenazi T, Singer P. Attitude of health care professionals to brain death: influence on the organ donation process. Clinical Transplantation. 2008;22:211–15. Reason for Exclusion: looking at attitudes of HCPs towards organ donation. [PubMed: 18339141]

  • D’Alessandro AM. Current results of an organ procurement organization effort to increase utilization of donors after cardiac death. Transplantation. 2006;81:15. Reason for Exclusion: expert opinion. [PubMed: 16421469]

  • D’Alessandro AM, Peltier JW, Phelps JE. Increasing organ donations after cardiac death by increasing DCD support among health care professionals: A case report. American Journal of Transplantation. 2008;8:897–904. Reason for Exclusion: looking at increasing knowledge and providing support to HCPs to increase DCD. [PubMed: 18324979]

  • D’Alessandro AM, Peltier JW, Phelps JE. Understanding the antecedents of the acceptance of donation after cardiac death by healthcare professionals. Critical Care Medicine. 2008;36:1075–81. Reason for Exclusion: looks at overall barriers with DCD donation. [PubMed: 18379230]

  • Darby JM, Stein K, Grenvik A, Stuart SA. Approach to management of the heartbeating ‘brain dead’ organ donor. JAMA. 1989;261:2222–28. [Review] [71 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 2648042]

  • Davis FD. Coordination of cardiac transplantation: patient processing and donor organ procurement. Circulation. 1987;75:29–39. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 3539396]

  • Delmonico FL, Reese JC. Organ donor issues for the intensive care physician. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 1998;13:269–79. Reason for Exclusion: general background.

  • DeVeaux TE. Non-heart-beating organ donation: Issues and ethics for the critical care nurse. Journal of Vascular Nursing. 2006;24:17–21. Reason for Exclusion: general background on ethics for the critical care nurse. [PubMed: 16504847]

  • Dictus C, Vienenkoetter B, Esmaeilzadeh M, Unterberg A, Ahmadi R. Critical care management of potential organ donors: our current standard. Clinical Transplantation. 2009;23 Suppl-9 [Review] [81 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 19930309]

  • DuBois JM, DeVita M. Donation after cardiac death in the United States: How to move forward. Critical Care Medicine. 2006;34:3045–47. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 17130701]

  • Edwards J, Mulvania P, Robertson V, George G, Hasz R, Nathan H, D’Alessandro A. Maximizing organ donation opportunities through donation after cardiac death. Critical Care Nurse. 2006;26:101–16. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16565285]

  • Fidler SA. Implementing donation after cardiac death protocols. Journal of health & life sciences law. 2008;2:123, 125–23, 149. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it. [PubMed: 19004299]

  • Filipponi F, De SP, Rossi E, The Tuscany. model of a regional transplantation service authority: Organizzazione Toscana Trapianti. Transplantation Proceedings. 2007;39:2953–60. Reason for Exclusion: implementation of a regional network. [PubMed: 18089299]

  • Follette D, Rudich S, Bonacci C, Allen R, Hoso A, Albertson T. Importance of an aggressive multidisciplinary management approach to optimize lung donor procurement. Transplantation Proceedings. 1999;31:169–70. Reason for Exclusion: looks at procurement strategies for obtaining lungs as organs. [PubMed: 10083061]

  • Frontera JA. How i manage the adult potential organ donor: Donation after cardiac death (Part 2) Neurocritical Care. 2010;12:111–16. Reason for Exclusion: expert opinion. [PubMed: 19859833]

  • Frontera JA, Kalb T. How I manage the adult potential organ donor: donation after neurological death (part 1) Neurocritical Care. 2010;12:103–10. Reason for Exclusion: expert opinion. [PubMed: 19844809]

  • Holmquist M, Chabalewski F, Blount T, Edwards C, McBride V, Pietroski R. A critical pathway: guiding care for organ donors. Critical Care Nurse. 1999;19:84–98. [Review] [36 refs] Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10401306]

  • Holmquist M. Organ donor Care MAP: a multidisciplinary approach. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1996;6:101–4. [Review] [4 refs] Reason for Exclusion: looking at role of ICU nurses after consent has been obtained. [PubMed: 9188366]

  • House MA, Durham J, Joyner J. An OPO’s experience with a donor family support program. Journal of Transplant Coordination. 1993;3:36–38. Reason for Exclusion: looking at effects of establishing family support programs.

  • Matesanz R, Miranda B, Felipe C. Organ procurement and renal transplants in Spain: the impact of transplant coordination. Spanish National Transplant Organization (ONT) Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. 479; 9:475–78. Reason for Exclusion: description of a Spanish model but not evaluation. [PubMed: 8090327]

  • Meyer K, Bjork IT. Change of focus: from intensive care towards organ donation. Transplant International. 2008;21:133–39. Reason for Exclusion: looks at educational and other needs of nurses in the OD process. [PubMed: 17944801]

  • Noah P, Morgan S. Organ/tissue donation request: a multidisciplinary approach. Critical Care Nursing Quarterly. 1999;22:30–38. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 10646449]

  • Petro JA, Tack CM, Groh J. Up close & clinical. A critical pathway for organ donation: one possible solution to a crucial need. Nursing Spectrum -- Philadelphia Tri -- State Edition. 1997;6:10–12. Reason for Exclusion: British Library can’t find it.

  • Powner DJ, Darby JM, Kellum JA. Proposed treatment guidelines for donor care. Progress in Transplantation. 2004;14:16–26. Reason for Exclusion: a guideline. [PubMed: 15077733]

  • Rayburn AB. A multipronged approach to addressing the organ shortage. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. 2005;20 Suppl-21 Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 16160580]

  • Rosendale JD, Chabalewski FL, McBride MA, Garrity ER, Rosengard BR, Delmonico FL, Kauffman HM. Increased transplanted organs from the use of a standardized donor management protocol. American Journal of Transplantation. 2002;2:761–68. Reason for Exclusion: looks at the effects of implementing a new process to increase identification of donors and not looking at role of SNOD in the care pathway. [PubMed: 12243497]

  • Whiting JF, Delmonico F, Morrissey P, Basadonna G, Johnson S, Lewis WD, Rohrer R, O’Connor K, Bradley J, Lovewell TD, Lipkowitz G. Clinical results of an organ procurement organization effort to increase utilization of donors after cardiac death. Transplantation. 2006;81:1368–71. Reason for Exclusion: the paper looks at increasing identification rates rather than the role of SNOD in the care pathway. [PubMed: 16732170]

  • Wight C, Cohen B, Roels L, Miranda B. Donor action: A quality assurance program for intensive care units that increases organ donation. Journal of Intensive Care Medicine. 2000;15:104–14. Reason for Exclusion: not looking at the specific role of SNOD in the OD care pathway.

  • Zavotsky KE, Tamburri LM. A Case in Successful Organ Donation: Emergency Department Nurses Do Make a Difference. Journal of Emergency Nursing. 2007;33:235–41. Reason for Exclusion: general background. [PubMed: 17517270]

Review question 5

    As noted above, evidence from other questions was used to inform recommendations on skills and competencies needed. There are therefore no excluded studies for this question.