Table 44Other psychological and psychosocial interventions versus treatment as usual

Intensive multi-modal intervention versus treatment as usualEmergency card versus treatment as usualTelephone contact versus treatment as usual
Total number of trials (N)2 RCTs (270)2 RCTs (1039)2 RCTs (821)
Study ID
  1. 87% (n = 131) had diagnosis of depression, 53% (n = 80) substance abuse 45% (n = 68) personality disorder. All according to according to DSM-III.
  2. Not reported
  1. Most common diagnosis was depressive disorder (22%) (diagnostic tool not reported)
  2. 85% (n = 707) had diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder (diagnostic tool not reported)
  1. 91% (n = 197) had diagnosis of mood disorder by DSM-III-R
  2. Not reported
Recruitment setting
  1. Patients presenting to hospital for a suicide attempt
  2. Patients admitted to an accident and emergency department for self-harm
  1. Patients admitted to hospital following first episode of self-harm
  2. Patients admitted to general hospital following self-harm episode
  1. Patients treated in hospital after suicide attempt
  2. Patients presenting to hospital after drug overdose
Number of sessions and treatment length
  1. Unclear number of sessions for 12 months
  2. Weekly or bi-weekly contacts for 4 months
  1. 12 months
  2. 6 months
  1. 8 months (telephone calls ranged from 20 to 45 minutes)
  2. One telephone call (duration not specified)
  1. Canada
  2. US
  1. UK
  2. UK
  1. Sweden
  2. France
  1. Various interventions (for example psychoanalytic psychotherapy, psychosocial, drug or behavioural therapy) or therapy provided where needed
  2. Special outreach programme: a CMHT contacted participants immediately after discharge and at home visit arranged as soon as possible. Various modalities involved
  1. Standard care plus emergency green card (emergency card indicating that a doctor was available by telephone and how to contact them)
  2. Emergency card plus treatment as usual: participants were provided with an emergency card offering 24-hour service for crisis telephone consultation with an on-call psychiatrist
  1. Telephone contact
  2. Telephone contact
  1. Treatment as usual (no details on usual care other than this group was ‘treated by regular personnel of hospital’)
  2. Treatment as usual (routine treatment programme: psychiatric consultation at request of treating physician.
Participants were given a next-day appointment for evaluation at the CMHT centre. Any further contact after discharge was up to the patient to decide)
  1. Treatment as usual (for example referral back to the primary healthcare team, psychiatric inpatient admission)
  2. Treatment as usual
  1. Treatment as usual
  2. Treatment as usual (mostly referred back to GP)
Source for primary outcome (repetition) and follow-up period
  1. Hospital records, coroner's office plus interview with participants and other informants
  2. Self-report, hospital records and interview with family/friends
  1. Hospital, psychiatric and GP records
  2. Hospital records
  1. Interviews checked against patient and admission charts
  2. Self-report and hospital records


Cover of Self-Harm: Longer-Term Management
Self-Harm: Longer-Term Management.
NICE Clinical Guidelines, No. 133.
National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health (UK).
Leicester (UK): British Psychological Society; 2012.
Copyright © 2012, The British Psychological Society & The Royal College of Psychiatrists.

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