Figure 7.5. A causal diagram illustrating the problem of adjustment for the intermediate variable, low birth weight (M1), when evaluating the causal effect of maternal smoking (A0) on infant mortality (Y1) after adjustment for measured baseline confounders (C0) between exposure and outcome.

Figure 7.5A causal diagram illustrating the problem of adjustment for the intermediate variable, low birth weight (M1), when evaluating the causal effect of maternal smoking (A0) on infant mortality (Y1) after adjustment for measured baseline confounders (C0) between exposure and outcome

Confounding at the intermediate and outcome, birth defects (U1), remains unmeasured.

From: Chapter 7, Covariate Selection

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Developing a Protocol for Observational Comparative Effectiveness Research: A User's Guide.
Velentgas P, Dreyer NA, Nourjah P, et al., editors.
Copyright © 2013, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

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