Table 4.2Distribution of Risk Factor-Attributable Mortality and Burden of Disease, by Age and Sex

Mortality Disease burden
0–4 5–14 15–59 60+ Males Females 0–4 5–14 15–59 60+ Males Females
World
Childhood and maternal undernutrition
Childhood underweight10000050501000005050
Iron-deficiency anemia68125543575773334456
Vitamin A deficiency930704753940604753
Zinc deficiency10000051491000005149
Other nutrition-related risk factors and physical inactivity
High blood pressure00138747530025755050
High cholesterol00237748520040605248
Overweight and obesity (high BMI)00277345550047534555
Low fruit and vegetable consumption00237753470038625545
Physical inactivity00217950500038625248
Addictive substances
Smoking00316976240050507723
Alcohol use11653390101282158614
Illicit drugs use009917921019807723
Sexual and reproductive health
Unsafe sex14475848521747634753
Non-use and use of ineffective methods of contraception00100001000010000100
Environmental risk factors
Unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene900375248912525248
Urban air pollution30168152487028655347
Indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels520840455571010184852
Other selected risk factors
Contaminated injections in health care settings1235232633717560186040
Child sexual abuse0080205050009373664
Low- and middle-income countries
Childhood and maternal undernutrition
Childhood underweight10000050501000005050
Iron-deficiency anemia69126443575973234456
Vitamin A deficiency930704753940604753
Zinc deficiency10000051491000005149
Other nutrition-related risk factors and physical inactivity
High blood pressure00148647530026744951
High cholesterol00267448520042585248
Overweight and obesity (high BMI)00307044560049514357
Low fruit and vegetable consumption00247653470039615446
Physical inactivity00237750500039615149
Addictive substances
Smoking00386282180055458218
Alcohol use11593984161279178416
Illicit drugs use009828119019817921
Sexual and reproductive health
Unsafe sex14475749511747634753
Non-use and use of ineffective methods of contraception00100001000010000100
Environmental risk factors
Unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene900375248912525248
Urban air pollution30178052488028645347
Indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels520840455571010184852
Other selected risk factors
Contaminated injections in health care settings1235232633717560186040
Child sexual abuse10000050501000005050
High-income countries
Childhood and maternal undernutrition
Childhood underweight10000055451000005149
Iron-deficiency anemia13158236649566203961
Vitamin A deficiency81019044568601404753
Zinc deficiency10000055451000005248
Other nutrition-related risk factors and physical inactivity
High blood pressure0079345550018825248
High cholesterol00148649510032685743
Overweight and obesity (high BMI)00188249510040605050
Low fruit and vegetable consumption00168456440033676139
Physical inactivity00148650500032685446
Addictive substances
Smoking00178364360036646535
Alcohol usea34477−384531−43111103−5964
Illicit drugs use009916832019906832
Sexual and reproductive health
Unsafe sex00673336642085134060
Non-use and use of ineffective methods of contraception00100001000010000100
Environmental risk factors
Unsafe water, sanitation, and hygiene71686396153627145050
Urban air pollution00109051490023775644
Indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels2089039612056413169
Other selected risk factors
Contaminated injections in health care settings1025335633716367136139
Child sexual abuse0081224852009643664

Source: Authors' calculations.

Note: BMI = body mass index. Numbers show percentage of total death or disease burden in each age group or for each sex.

a. The figures are the ratio of deaths in each age group or for each sex to the total alcohol-attributable deaths and disease burden. Because the beneficial effects of alcohol are age dependent (more benefits for cardiovascular diseases in older ages) and because the benefit-harm ratio is larger for women than for men (smaller alcohol-attributable burden from injuries), the ratios in younger ages or for males are larger than 100 percent and those in older ages or for females are negative.

From: Chapter 4, Comparative Quantification of Mortality and Burden of Disease Attributable to Selected Risk Factors

Cover of Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors
Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors.
Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, et al., editors.
Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006.
Copyright © 2006, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group.

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