Table 5.6Estimated 95 Percent Uncertainty Ranges for YLD and DALYs Arising from Uncertainty in Disability Weights for Selected Causes for Low- and Middle-Income Countries, 2001
(thousands)

CauseYLD(3,0)Uncertainty rangeDALYs(3,0)Uncertainty range
Group I
Tuberculosis4,1342,706–6,21935,88234,400–37,900
Syphilis407310–5744,1224,021–4,286
Chlamydia2,2551,766–3,0732,4381,949–3,256
Gonorrhea2,5302,038–3,3692,5502,058–3,390
HIV/AIDS5,9734,142–8,19570,85768,900–73,000
Diarrheal diseases7,8364,236–12,90058,68555,100–63,800
Pertussis2,2911,763–2,98611,40810,900–12,100
Poliomyelitis12684–17013694–180
Diphtheria00–1164164–164
Measles193113–31923,09723,000–23,200
Tetanus1410–168,3378,329–8,335
Meningitis1,131915–1,4165,4775,255–5,756
Hepatitis B5228–962,0822,056–2,124
Hepatitis C2111–39844832–860
Malaria4,5013,521–5,67239,94439,000–41,100
Trypanosomiasis7249–1011,3331,310–1,361
Chagas' disease358275–501584500–727
Schistosomiasis1,313727–2,5631,525938–2,774
Leishmaniasis411291–6101,7571,636–1,955
Lymphatic filariasis4,4463,365–6,9474,4553,374–6,956
Onchocerciasis439361–541439361–541
Leprosy9356–142191154–239
Dengue53–10529526–533
Japanese encephalitis231187–276598554–644
Trachoma2,6182,023–3,1922,6212,025–3,195
Ascariasis1,311707–2,1901,413808–2,291
Trichuriasis713518–1,000800604–1,087
Hookworm disease74–136360–69
Lower respiratory infections4,4303,128–6,52583,57982,300–85,700
Upper respiratory infections181108–3181,6801,609–1,819
Otitis media1,336811–2,1361,424899–2,224
Maternal hemorrhage23261–1623,9233,750–3,851
Maternal sepsis3,290827–2,0485,2692,804–4,025
Hypertensive disorders0–01,8901,888–1,888
Obstructed labor1,349842–1,4772,4951,988–2,622
Abortion1,7321,034–2,3443,5032,803–4,112
Perinatal causes13,52510,300–18,10089,12185,900–93,800
Protein-energy malnutrition9,3376,616–14,30015,45012,700–20,400
Iodine deficiency2,6851,617–2,2062,8751,807–2,396
Vitamin A deficiency5834–88711685–740
Iron-deficiency anemia6,7364,782–10,3009,4887,530–13,000
Group II
Mouth and oropharynx cancers10780–1274,0794,049–4,097
Esophageal cancer4229–565,2515,235–5,262
Stomach cancer12495–1609,6139,577–9,643
Colon and rectal cancers241179–3155,0584,993–5,128
Liver cancer4937–637,9437,926–7,952
Pancreas cancer1816–191,6211,617–1,620
Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers137117–15510,69710,700–10,700
Melanoma and other skin cancers106–15501497–505
Breast cancer308226–3865,5275,440–5,600
Cervix uteri cancer205140–2823,8003,732–3,875
Corpus uteri cancer276200–416908831–1,046
Ovarian cancer9871–1381,4881,460–1,527
Prostate cancer9163–1091,4791,448–1,494
Bladder cancer10476–1341,5041,474–1,532
Lymphomas, multiple myeloma6949–983,7703,746–3,795
Leukemia5833–863,9643,936–3,989
Diabetes mellitus5,6624,229–7,73615,80614,400–17,900
Endocrine disorders7,5814,447–12,70010,9477,814–16,100
Unipolar depressive disorders43,22330,400–53,60043,42930,600–53,800
Bipolar affective disorder8,6765,636–12,1008,6815,642–12,100
Schizophrenia10,1567,419–12,80010,5307,793–13,200
Epilepsy2,9421,541–5,7585,7594,356–8,573
Alcohol use disorders9,8086,086–15,70011,0097,286–16,900
Alzheimer's and other dementias8,1726,690–9,7909,6418,158–11,300
Parkinson's disease767513–1,0851,239984–1,557
Multiple sclerosis770501–1,039916647–1,185
Drug use disorders2,7361,693–3,8254,4063,361–5,493
Post-traumatic stress disorder2,0131,217–3,9182,0131,218–3,919
Obsessive-compulsive disorder3,1361,726–5,5323,1361,726–5,532
Panic disorder4,0172,530–6,0524,0172,530–6,052
Insomnia (primary)2,2191,314–3,8832,2191,314–3,883
Migraine4,8512,720–7,5034,8512,720–7,503
Mental retardation, lead-caused8,4745,358–12,1008,6015,484–12,300
Glaucoma4,1102,986–5,3934,1112,987–5,395
Cataracts28,15521,500–37,10028,15521,500–37,100
Vision disorders, age-related15,36010,900–19,40015,36010,900–19,400
Hearing loss, adult onset24,61014,000–43,80024,61014,000–43,800
Rheumatic heart disease607404–8636,1525,945–6,404
Hypertensive heart disease888542–1,3589,9699,612–10,400
Ischemic heart disease3,9212,525–5,36971,87470,400–73,300
Cerebrovascular disease11,0967,209–17,10062,65258,700–68,600
Inflammatory heart diseases1,309765–1,9085,8125,263–6,406
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease8,4735,670–12,40033,45730,600–37,300
Asthma7,7134,479–13,60011,5138,277–17,400
Peptic ulcer disease1,154556–1,7374,8024,203–5,383
Cirrhosis of the liver2,3291,391–3,28913,63512,700–14,600
Appendicitis6042–81377358–397
Nephritis and nephrosis546288–8699,0788,811–9,392
Benign prostatic hypertrophy2,3041,229–3,9992,6131,538–4,308
Skin diseases2,9241,764–4,4253,6972,535–5,197
Rheumatoid arthritis3,4332,132–5,4363,6452,344–5,648
Osteoarthritis13,6518,636–22,40013,6678,652–22,400
Gout2,7681,697–4,0532,7851,714–4,070
Low back pain1,6761,093–2,6701,6921,109–2,685
Congenital anomalies9,2957,047–11,70023,53821,300–26,000
Dental caries4,7522,771–8,4294,7522,771–8,429
Periodontal disease206124–368207125–369
Edentulism2,2931,349–3,4762,2931,349–3,476
Group III
Road traffic accidents7,1956,489–8,06332,02231,300–32,900
Poisonings135107–1707,1197,088–7,151
Falls8,0557,035–9,20313,58212,600–14,700
Fires2,7192,199–3,28610,0819,557–10,600
Drownings3733–419,3899,379–9,387
Self-inflicted injuries1,2361,040–1,48917,67717,500–17,900
Violence5,4054,734–6,42018,13517,500–19,100
War1,5691,321–1,8876,4966,240–6,806

Source: Authors' calculations.

From: Chapter 5, Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analyses for Burden of Disease and Risk Factor Estimates

Cover of Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors
Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors.
Lopez AD, Mathers CD, Ezzati M, et al., editors.
Washington (DC): World Bank; 2006.
Copyright © 2006, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank Group.

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