Family Interventions since 1996 that Improve Outcomes for US Patients with Mental Health (MH) Conditions

MH ConditionInterventionComparatorOutcomeEfficacy StatusStrength of Evidence
Alcohol Use DisordersBehavioral Couple TherapyIndividual Behavioral Therapy1) Substance Use1Moderatea
2) Relationship Adjustment1Moderatea
3) Intimate Partner Violence3Low
4) Attendance3Low
Brief family intervention to promote continuing careTreatment-as-usual1) Substance UseNDLow
2) Treatment Initiation3Low
Behavioral Couple Therapy + relapse preventionBehavioral Couple Therapy1) Substance Use3Low
2) Relationship AdjustmentNDLow
Behavioral Family TreatmentIndividual Behavioral Therapy1) Substance Use3Low
2) Family FunctioningNDLow
CRAFTAlternative Family Treatments1) Substance UseNDLow
2) Family FunctioningNDLow
3) Treatment Initiation3Low
Drug Use DisordersBehavioral Couple TherapyIndividual Behavioral Therapy1) Substance Use1Moderatea
2) Relationship Adjustment1Moderatea
3) Intimate Partner Violence3Low
4) Attendance1Lowb
Behavioral Family TreatmentIndividual Behavioral Therapy1) Substance Use3Low
2) Family Functioning3Low
CRAFTAl-Anon/Nar-Anon1) Substance UseNDModerate
2) Family FunctioningNDLow
3) Treatment Initiation1Moderate
BipolarFamily-Focused Treatment-Health Promoting InterventionHealth information DVDs reviewed by caregivers1) Symptoms3Low
Family-Focused TreatmentCrisis management with two in-home family psychoeducation sessions1) Symptoms3Low
2) Medication Adherence3Low
Problem-focused, psychoeducational Individual therapy1) Symptoms3Low
2) Medication AdherenceNDLow
Cognitive Behavior Therapy1) SymptomsNDLow
Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy1) SymptomsNDLow
Marital intervention + medicationMedication only1) SymptomsNDLow
2) Global Functioning4Low
3) Medication Adherence4Low
SchizophreniaMultiple Family GroupsStandard, individually-oriented care1) SymptomsNDLow
2) Any HospitalizationNDLow
3) State Hospitalization3Low
4) MH Care UtilizationNDLow
Family intervention + in home behavioral family therapy (Applied Family Management)Family intervention1) SymptomsNDLow
2) Family FunctioningNDLow
3) Patient Rejection by Family3Low
4) MH Care UtilizationNDLow
5) AttendanceNDLow
Schizophrenia & Substance Use DisorderPsychoeducation + skills oriented training (Family Intervention for Dual Disorder)Short term psychoeducation1) Schizophrenia Symptoms3Low
2) Substance UseNDLow
3) Global functioning3Low
4) Medication AdherenceNDLow
PTSDCoffee and Family Education and SupportWaitlist1) Number of MH Visits4Low
DepressionBrief problem-focused couple therapyWaitlist1) Symptoms4Low
2) Relationship Adjustment4Low

Efficacy Status:

1 = Efficacious & Specific = superior to placebo, nonspecific, or alternative intervention in at least two studies conducted by independent research teams.

2 = Efficacious; superior to waitlist in RCTs conducted by two independent research teams.

3 = Possibly Efficacious & Specific; criteria met for efficacious and specific from a single study.

4 = Possibly Efficacious; criteria met for efficacious from a single study.

ND = No significant differences found

Strength of Evidence:

High = High confidence evidence reflects true effect. The effect and confidence in the estimate of effect is unlikely to change with further research.

Moderate = moderate confidence that evidence reflects true effect. The effect and confidence of the effect may change with further research.

Low = Low confidence evidence reflects true effect. The effect and confidence of the effect will likely change with further research.

a

Seven of the nine trials comparing these conditions were written by or based on data collected by Dr. Fals-Stewart. See Substance Use Disorders Results for KQ2 for discussion.

b

Several studies also found non-significant differences, leading to low strength of evidence.

From: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

Cover of Family Involved Psychosocial Treatments for Adult Mental Health Conditions: A Review of the Evidence
Family Involved Psychosocial Treatments for Adult Mental Health Conditions: A Review of the Evidence [Internet].
Meis L, Griffin J, Greer N, et al.
Washington (DC): Department of Veterans Affairs (US); 2012 Feb.

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