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Viswanathan M, Golin CE, Jones CD, et al. Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 4: Medication Adherence Interventions: Comparative Effectiveness). Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2012 Sep. (Evidence Reports/Technology Assessments, No. 208.4.)

Cover of Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 4: Medication Adherence Interventions: Comparative Effectiveness)

Closing the Quality Gap: Revisiting the State of the Science (Vol. 4: Medication Adherence Interventions: Comparative Effectiveness).

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Appendix FAdherence and Clinical Outcome Scales Commonly Used in Medication Adherence Studies

General Health Measures

Abbreviated NameComplete Name of Measure or InstrumentRange or mean of ScoresImprovement Denoted by
ACTAsthma Control Test0–25.Increase
ACQAsthma Control QuestionnaireTotal score is mean of scores for all 7 items.Decrease
AQLQAsthma Quality of Life Questionnaire0–4. A score change of 0.5 points is considered to be clinically important.Increase
ATAQAsthma Therapy Assessment Questionnaire0–4Decrease
CES-DCenter for Epidemiologic Studies – Depression Scale0–60Decrease
DSM-III/IVDiagnostic and Symptom Manual III/IVN/AN/A
N/AHypertension/Lipid Form 5.1 (developed by The Health Outcomes Institute)
IDSInventory of Depressive Symptomatology0–84Decrease
MLHFMinnesota Living with Heart FailureNRIncrease
SCL-20Symptom Checklist with 20 itemsNRDecrease
SF-36Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey0–100Increase
N/ASheehan Disability Scale0–10Decrease

Medication Adherence Measures

Abbreviated NameComplete Name of Measure or InstrumentRange or mean of ScoresImprovement Denoted by
HEDISHealthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set guidelines for measuring adherence based on pharmacy refill dataN/AN/A
MPRMedication possession ratio (i.e, number of eligible days in the yearly quarter the person was in possession of the medication divided by the number of days in the quarter)0–1.0Increase
MEMSMedication event monitoring systemsN/AIncrease
N/AMorisky 8-item adherence scale0–8Decrease
N/AProportion of days covered (i.e., estimated number of days of medication available to each patient)ContinuousIncrease
N/ATime-to-refillMeasured in daysDecrease
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