Appendix A Table 2Inclusion Criteria

PopulationsIncludeAmbulatory community-dwelling adults age 65 years or older, including those post-hospital or emergency department discharge
Studies with samples age 65 years or older on average or studies that present results for adults age 65 years or older separately
ExcludeStudies limited to persons in nursing homes or care homes, rehabilitation centers, or other long-term care facilities
SettingsIncludeAmbulatory care, home-based interventions, primary care, generalizable to U.S. practice, and primary care–referable settings in countries listed as “high” (>0.90) on the United Nations Development Index (Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Singapore, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, United Kingdom, and United States)
ExcludeHospitals, nursing homes, rehabilitation centers, and other long-term care facilities
InterventionsIncludeMultifactorial assessments and management; includes a clinical assessment of two or more domains of functioning, generally supplemented by assessment of disability-related or general geriatric risk factors and/or conditions, with assessment results used as a basis for remedial management
Either conducted in a primary care setting or judged to be feasible in primary care or be primary care–referable:
  • Involve individual-level identification and management of health (and social) problems
  • Usually involve primary care physicians, other physicians, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, or related clinical staff (e.g., health educators, other counselors), or the intervention is seen as connected to the health care system by the participant
  • Individual or small group format (15 people or less, generally does not primarily involve group-level interventions outside the primary care settings or more than 8 group sessions)
  • Located anywhere, as long as linked to primary care
Or, must be primary care–referable, such that the intervention needs to be conducted as part of a health care setting or be widely available for referral in most communities
ExcludeCommunity, nonreferral:
  • Community programs (e.g., senior residence programs)
  • Social marketing (e.g., media campaigns)
  • Policy (e.g., local and State public or health policy)
Hospital-based and other institutional methods; model of care
OutcomesIncludeHospitalization, institutionalization, disability (activities of daily living or instrumental activities of daily living), health related quality of life, and death
Any harm (adverse effects)
ExcludeLess than 6 months of followup for outcomes
Study DesignsIncludeRandomized, controlled trials
Trials must have a control arm with no intervention, minimal intervention, or attention control
English language only
ExcludeNonrandomized trials, comparative effectiveness trials (i.e., without a control arm), case-control studies, nonsystematic reviews, cohort studies, and observational literature, including editorials, letters, or opinion pieces

From: Appendix A, Detailed Methods

Cover of Challenges in Synthesizing and Interpreting the Evidence From a Systematic Review of Multifactorial Interventions to Prevent Functional Decline in Older Adults
Challenges in Synthesizing and Interpreting the Evidence From a Systematic Review of Multifactorial Interventions to Prevent Functional Decline in Older Adults [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses/Technology Assessments, No. 94.
Lin JS, Whitlock EP, Eckstrom E, et al.

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