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Figure 4 displays a forest plot of activities of daily living combined with instrumental activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living alone, or activities of daily living alone at 12 months for interventions with the primary purpose of preventing functional decline. The trials are stratified by setting (U.S. versus non-U.S.). For U.S. trials, the standardized mean difference is 0.19 and the 95% confidence interval is 0.00 to 0.38. For non-U.S. trials, the standardized mean difference is 0.04 and the 95% confidence interval is -0.03 to 0.11. The overall standardized mean difference is 0.09 and the 95% confidence interval is 0.01 to 0.16. A standardized mean difference greater than zero favors the intervention. This figure is described in the text as follows: “Sensitivity analysis pooling trials reporting either ADL or IADL outcomes or using combined ADL/IADL outcome measures was also consistent, but still heterogeneous (SMD, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01 to 0.16]; I2=42.3%).”

Figure 4Meta-Analysis of Activities of Daily Living/Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, or Activities of Daily Living* at 12 Months for Interventions With the Primary Purpose of Preventing Functional Decline

Abbreviations: ADL=activities of daily living; CI=confidence interval; IADL=instrumental activities of daily living; N=number; SMD=standardized mean difference; US=United States.

If more than one instrument was available for an ADL, IADL, or ADL/IADL outcome, the ADL/IADL outcome was given preference, followed by the IADL outcome, and lastly the ADL outcome.

From: 2, Results

Cover of Challenges in Synthesizing and Interpreting the Evidence From a Systematic Review of Multifactorial Interventions to Prevent Functional Decline in Older Adults
Challenges in Synthesizing and Interpreting the Evidence From a Systematic Review of Multifactorial Interventions to Prevent Functional Decline in Older Adults [Internet].
Evidence Syntheses/Technology Assessments, No. 94.
Lin JS, Whitlock EP, Eckstrom E, et al.

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