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Cover of Neuroscience

Neuroscience, 2nd edition

Edited by Dale Purves, George J Augustine, David Fitzpatrick, Lawrence C Katz, Anthony-Samuel LaMantia, James O McNamara, and S Mark Williams.

Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; .
ISBN-10: 0-87893-742-0

Preface

Whether judged in molecular, cellular, systemic, behavioral, or cognitive terms, the human nervous system is a stupendous piece of biological machinery. Given its accomplishments—all the artifacts of human culture, for instance—there is good reason for wanting to understand how the brain and the rest of the nervous system works. The debilitating and costly effects of neurological and psychiatric disease add a further sense of urgency to this quest. The aim of this book is to highlight the intellectual challenges and excitement—as well as the uncertainties—of what many see as the last great frontier of biological science. The information presented should serve as a starting point for undergraduates, medical students, graduate students in the neurosciences, and others who want to understand how the human nervous system operates. Like any other great challenge, neuroscience should be, and is, full of debate, dissension, and considerable fun. All these ingredients have gone into the construction of this book; we hope they will be conveyed in equal measure to readers at all levels.

Contents

  • Contributors
  • Acknowledgments
  • Supplements to Accompany Neuroscience Second Edition
  • Introductory Chapter
    • Chapter 1. The Organization of the Nervous System
      • The Cellular Components of the Nervous System
      • Nerve Cells
      • Neuroglial Cells
      • Neural Circuits
      • Neural Systems
      • Some Anatomical Terminology
      • The Subdivisions of the Central Nervous System
      • The External Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
      • The Internal Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
      • The External Anatomy of the Brain: Some General Points
      • The Lateral Surface of the Brain
      • The Dorsal and Ventral Surfaces of the Brain
      • The Midline Sagittal Surface of the Brain
      • The Internal Anatomy of the Brain
      • The Internal Anatomy of the Cerebral Hemispheres and Diencephalon
      • The Ventricular System
      • The Meninges
      • The Blood Supply of the Brain and Spinal Cord
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
  • Part I. Neural Signaling
    • Chapter 2. Electrical Signals of Nerve Cells
      • Electrical Potentials Across Nerve Cell Membranes
      • How Ionic Movements Produce Electrical Signals
      • The Forces that Create Membrane Potentials
      • Electrochemical Equilibrium in an Environment with More Than One Permeant Ion
      • The Ionic Basis of the Resting Membrane Potential
      • The Ionic Basis of Action Potentials
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 3. Voltage-Dependent Membrane Permeability
      • Ionic Currents Across Nerve Cell Membranes
      • Two Types of Voltage-Dependent Ionic Current
      • Two Voltage-Dependent Membrane Conductances
      • Reconstruction of the Action Potential
      • Long-Distance Signaling by Means of Action Potentials
      • The Refractory Period
      • Increased Conduction Velocity as a Result of Myelination
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 4. Channels and Transporters
      • Ion Channels Underlying Action Potentials
      • The Diversity of Ion Channels
      • Voltage-Gated Ion Channels
      • Ligand-Gated Ion Channels
      • Stretch- and Heat-Activated Channels
      • The Molecular Structure of Ion Channels
      • Active Transporters Create and Maintain Ion Gradients
      • Functional Properties of the Na+/K+ Pump
      • The Molecular Structure of the Na+/K+ Pump
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 5. Synaptic Transmission
      • Electrical Synapses
      • Chemical Synapses
      • Quantal Transmission at Neuromuscular Synapses
      • Release of Transmitters from Synaptic Vesicles
      • Local Recycling of Synaptic Vesicles
      • The Role of Calcium in Transmitter Secretion
      • Molecular Mechanisms of Transmitter Secretion
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 6. Neurotransmitters
      • What Defines a Neurotransmitter?
      • Two Major Categories of Neurotransmitters
      • Neurons Often Release More Than One Transmitter
      • Neurotransmitter Synthesis
      • Packaging Neurotransmitters
      • Neurotransmitter Release and Removal
      • Acetylcholine
      • Glutamate
      • GABA and Glycine
      • The Biogenic Amines
      • ATP and Other Purines
      • Peptide Neurotransmitters
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 7. Neurotransmitter Receptors and Their Effects
      • Neurotransmitter Receptors Alter Postsynaptic Membrane Permeability
      • Principles Derived from Studies of the Neuromuscular Junction
      • Excitatory and Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials
      • Summation of Synaptic Potentials
      • Two Families of Postsynaptic Receptors
      • Cholinergic Receptors
      • Glutamate Receptors
      • GABA and Glycine Receptors
      • Serotonin Receptors
      • Purinergic Receptors
      • Catecholamine Receptors
      • Peptide Receptors
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 8. Intracellular Signal Transduction
      • Strategies of Molecular Signaling
      • The Activation of Signaling Pathways
      • Receptor Types
      • G-Proteins and Their Molecular Targets
      • Second Messengers
      • Second Messenger Targets: Protein Kinases and Phosphatases
      • Nuclear Signaling
      • Examples of Neuronal Signal Transduction
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
  • Part II. Sensation and Sensory Processing
    • Chapter 9. The Somatic Sensory System
      • Cutaneous and Subcutaneous Somatic Sensory Receptors
      • Mechanoreceptors Specialized to Receive Tactile Information
      • Differences in Mechanosensory Discrimination Across the Body Surface
      • Mechanoreceptors Specialized for Proprioception
      • Active Tactile Exploration
      • The Major Afferent Pathway for Mechanosensory Information: The Dorsal Column-Medial Lemniscus System
      • The Trigeminal Portion of the Mechanosensory System
      • The Somatic Sensory Components of the Thalamus
      • The Somatic Sensory Cortex
      • Higher-Order Cortical Representations
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 10. Pain
      • Nociceptors
      • The Perception of Pain
      • Hyperalgesia and Sensitization
      • Central Pain Pathways: The Spinothalamic Tract
      • The Nociceptive Components of the Thalamus and Cortex
      • Central Regulation of Pain Perception
      • The Placebo Effect
      • The Physiological Basis of Pain Modulation
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 11. Vision: The Eye
      • Anatomy of the Eye
      • The Formation of Images on the Retina
      • The Retina
      • Phototransduction
      • Functional Specialization of the Rod and Cone Systems
      • Anatomical Distribution of Rods and Cones
      • Cones and Color Vision
      • Retinal Circuits for Detecting Differences in Luminance
      • Contribution of Retinal Circuits to Light Adaptation
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 12. Central Visual Pathways
      • Central Projections of Retinal Ganglion Cells
      • The Retinotopic Representation of the Visual Field
      • Visual Field Deficits
      • The Functional Organization of the Striate Cortex
      • The Columnar Organization of the Striate Cortex
      • Parallel Streams of Information from Retina to Cortex
      • The Functional Organization of Extrastriate Visual Areas
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 13. The Auditory System
      • Sound
      • The Audible Spectrum
      • A Synopsis of Auditory Function
      • The External Ear
      • The Middle Ear
      • The Inner Ear
      • Hair Cells and the Mechanoelectrical Transduction of Sound Waves
      • Two Kinds of Hair Cells in the Cochlea
      • Tuning and Timing in the Auditory Nerve
      • How Information from the Cochlea Reaches Targets in the Brainstem
      • Integrating Information from the Two Ears
      • Monaural Pathways from the Cochlear Nucleus to the Lateral Lemniscus
      • Integration in the Inferior Colliculus
      • The Auditory Thalamus
      • The Auditory Cortex
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 14. The Vestibular System
      • The Vestibular Labyrinth
      • Vestibular Hair Cells
      • The Otolith Organs: The Utricle and Sacculus
      • How Otolith Neurons Sense Linear Forces
      • The Semicircular Canals
      • How Semicircular Canal Neurons Sense Angular Accelerations
      • Central Vestibular Pathways: Eye, Head, and Body Reflexes
      • Vestibular Pathways to the Thalamus and Cortex
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 15. The Chemical Senses
      • The Organization of the Olfactory System
      • Olfactory Perception in Humans
      • Physiological and Behavioral Responses to Odorants
      • The Olfactory Epithelium and Olfactory Receptor Neurons
      • The Transduction of Olfactory Signals
      • Odorant Receptors and Olfactory Coding
      • The Olfactory Bulb
      • Central Projections of the Olfactory Bulb
      • The Organization of the Taste System
      • Taste Perception in Humans
      • The Organization of the Peripheral Taste System
      • Idiosyncratic Responses to Various Tastants
      • Taste Receptors and the Transduction of Taste Signals
      • Neural Coding in the Taste System
      • Central Processing of Taste Signals
      • Trigeminal Chemoreception
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
  • Part III. Movement and Its Central Control
    • Chapter 16. Lower Motor Neuron Circuits and Motor Control
      • Neural Centers Responsible for Movement
      • Motor Neuron-Muscle Relationships
      • The Motor Unit
      • The Regulation of Muscle Force
      • The Spinal Cord Circuitry Underlying Muscle Stretch Reflexes
      • The Influence of Afferent Activity on Motor Behavior
      • Other Afferent Feedback that Affects Motor Performance
      • Flexion Reflex Pathways
      • Spinal Cord Circuitry and Locomotion
      • The Lower Motor Neuron Syndrome
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 17. Upper Motor Neuron Control of the Brainstem and Spinal Cord
      • Descending Control of Spinal Cord Circuitry: General Information
      • Motor Control Centers in the Brainstem: Upper Motor Neurons That Maintain Balance and Posture
      • The Primary Motor Cortex: Upper Motor Neurons That Initiate Complex Voluntary Movements
      • Functional Organization of the Primary Motor Cortex
      • The Premotor Cortex
      • Damage to Descending Motor Pathways: The Upper Motor Neuron Syndrome
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 18. Modulation of Movement by the Basal Ganglia
      • Projections to the Basal Ganglia
      • Projections from the Basal Ganglia to Other Brain Regions
      • Evidence from Studies of Eye Movements
      • Circuits within the Basal Ganglia System
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 19. Modulation of Movement by the Cerebellum
      • Organization of the Cerebellum
      • Projections to the Cerebellum
      • Projections from the Cerebellum
      • Circuits within the Cerebellum
      • Cerebellar Circuitry and the Coordination of Ongoing Movement
      • Consequences of Cerebellar Lesions
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 20. Eye Movements and Sensory Motor Integration
      • What Eye Movements Accomplish
      • The Actions and Innervation of Extraocular Muscles
      • Types of Eye Movements and Their Functions
      • Neural Control of Saccadic Eye Movements
      • Neural Control of Smooth Pursuit Movements
      • Neural Control of Vergence Movements
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 21. The Visceral Motor System
      • Early Studies of the Visceral Motor System
      • The Sympathetic Division of the Visceral Motor System
      • The Parasympathetic Division of the Visceral Motor System
      • The Enteric Nervous System
      • Sensory Components of the Visceral Motor System
      • Central Control of the Visceral Motor Functions
      • Neurotransmission in the Visceral Motor System
      • Visceral Motor Reflex Functions
      • Autonomic Regulation of Cardiovascular Function
      • Autonomic Regulation of the Bladder
      • Autonomic Regulation of Sexual Function
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
  • Part IV. The Changing Brain
    • Chapter 22. Early Brain Development
      • The Initial Formation of the Nervous System: Gastrulation and Neurulation
      • The Molecular Basis of Neural Induction
      • Formation of the Major Brain Subdivisions
      • Genetic Abnormalities and Altered Human Brain Development
      • The Initial Differentiation of Neurons and Glia
      • The Generation of Neuronal Diversity
      • Neuronal Migration
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 23. Construction of Neural Circuits
      • The Axonal Growth Cone
      • Non-Diffusible Signals for Axon Guidance
      • Diffusible Signals for Axon Guidance: Chemoattraction and Repulsion
      • The Formation of Topographic Maps
      • Selective Synapse Formation
      • Trophic Interactions and the Ultimate Size of Neuronal Populations
      • Further Competitive Interactions in the Formation of Neuronal Connections
      • Molecular Basis of Trophic Interactions
      • Neurotrophin Receptors
      • The Effect of Neurotrophins on the Differentiation of Neuronal Form
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 24. Modification of Brain Circuits as a Result of Experience
      • Critical Periods
      • The Development of Language: A Critical Period in Humans
      • Critical Periods in Visual System Development
      • Effects of Visual Deprivation on Ocular Dominance
      • Critical Periods, Cortical Plasticity, and Amblyopia in Humans
      • Mechanisms by which Neuronal Activity Affects the Development of Neural Circuits
      • Evidence for Critical Periods in Other Sensory Systems
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 25. Plasticity of Mature Synapses and Circuits
      • Mechanisms of Synaptic Plasticity in Relatively Simple Invertebrates
      • Mechanisms of Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity in the Mammalian Nervous System
      • Mechanism of Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity in the Mammalian Nervous System
      • Long-Term Synaptic Potentiation
      • Molecular Mechanisms Underlying LTP
      • Long-Term Synaptic Depression
      • Plasticity in the Adult Cerebral Cortex
      • Recovery from Neural Injury
      • Generation of Neurons in the Adult Brain
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
  • Part V. Complex Brain Functions
    • Chapter 26. The Association Cortices
      • The Association Cortices
      • An Overview of Cortical Structure
      • Specific Features of the Association Cortices
      • Lesions of the Parietal Association Cortex: Deficits of Attention
      • Lesions of the Temporal Association Cortex: Deficits of Recognition
      • Lesions of the Frontal Association Cortex: Deficits of Planning
      • “Attention Neurons” in the Monkey Parietal Cortex
      • “Recognition Neurons” in the Monkey Temporal Cortex
      • “Planning Neurons” in the Monkey Frontal Cortex
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 27. Language and Lateralization
      • Language Is Both Localized and Lateralized
      • Aphasias
      • A Dramatic Confirmation of Language Lateralization
      • Anatomical Differences between the Right and Left Hemispheres
      • Mapping Language Function
      • More on the Role of the Right Hemisphere in Language
      • Sign Language
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 28. Sleep and Wakefulness
      • Why Do Humans and Many Other Animals Sleep?
      • The Circadian Cycle of Sleep and Wakefulness
      • Stages of Sleep
      • Physiological Changes in Sleep States
      • The Possible Functions of REM Sleep and Dreaming
      • Neural Circuits Governing Sleep
      • Thalamocortical Interactions
      • Sleep Disorders
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 29. Emotions
      • Physiological Changes Associated with Emotion
      • The Integration of Emotional Behavior
      • The Limbic System
      • The Importance of the Amygdala
      • The Relationship between Neocortex and Amygdala
      • Cortical Lateralization of Emotional Functions
      • The Interplay of Emotion and Reason
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 30. Sex, Sexuality, and the Brain
      • Sexually Dimorphic Behavior
      • What Is Sex?
      • Hormonal Influences on Sexual Dimorphism
      • The Effect of Sex Hormones on Neural Circuitry
      • Central Nervous System Dimorphisms Related to Reproductive Behaviors
      • Brain Dimorphisms Related to Cognitive Function
      • Hormone-Sensitive Brain Circuits in Adult Animals
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
    • Chapter 31. Human Memory
      • Qualitative Categories of Human Memory
      • Temporal Categories of Memory
      • The Importance of Association in Information Storage
      • Forgetting
      • Brain Systems Underlying Declarative and Procedural Memories
      • The Long-Term Storage of Information
      • Memory and Aging
      • Summary
      • Additional Reading
  • Glossary

By agreement with the publisher, this book is accessible by the search feature, but cannot be browsed.

Copyright © 2001, Sinauer Associates, Inc.
Bookshelf ID: NBK10799

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