TABLE 13.1Summary of Published Studies Assessing Epigenetic Components in Suicide

StudiesBrain RegionsGenesFindings
McGowan et al. [52]Hippocampus GR ↑ Methylation in NGFI-A binding site within GR promoter in the hippocampus of suicide completers with history of abuse
↓ Expression of GR in the hippocampus of suicide completers with history of abuse
Alt et al. [63]Amygdala
Hippocampus
Inferior frontal gyrus
Cingulate gyrus
Nucleus accumbens
GR Amy: ↓ GRα protein, ↑ expression of 1J, ↓ YY1 transcription factor
HPC: ↓ Expression of GR1F and 1C, ↓ NGFI-A transcription factor
IFG: ↓ GRβ protein, ↓ YY1, and Sp1 transcription factors
NaC: ↓ Expression of GR1B, ↓ NGFI-A transcription factor
No methylation difference in promoters
McGowan et al. [119]Hippocampus rRNA Overall hypermethylation of rRNA promoter in the hippocampus of suicide completers with history of abuse
↓ Expression of rRNA gene in the hippocampus of suicide completers with history of abuse
Keller et al. [103]Wernicke area BDNF Hypermethylation at four CpGs within promoter/exon IV in suicide completers
Negative correlation between BDNF promoter methylation levels and expression
Ernst et al. [112]Frontal cortex TrkB-T1 ↑ Methylation in two sites within the promoter of TrkB-T1 in the frontal cortex of suicide completers
↓ Expression of TrkB-T1 in the frontal cortex of suicide completers
Ernst et al. [113]Frontal cortex TrkB-T1 ↑ H3K27 methylation in the frontal cortex of suicide completers
Negative correlation between H3K27 methylation levels and TrkB-T1 expression in the frontal cortex of suicide completers
Poulter et al. [140]Frontopolar cortex (FPC)
Hippocampus
Amygdala
Brain stem
GABA α1
DNMT1
DNMT3a
DNMT3b
FPC: ↓ Expression of DNMT1 mRNA in suicide completers
↑ Expression of DNMT3b mRNA and protein levels in suicide completers
↑ Increased methylation at two sites in the promoter region of GABA receptor subunit α1 in suicide completers
Limbic system: ↓ Expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b mRNA levels in suicide completers
Brain stem: ↓ Expression of DNMT3b mRNA in suicide completers
Grayson et al. [137]Occipital cortex Reelin
GAD67
↑ Methylation in CREB-binding sites within reelin promoter in the occipital cortex of schizophrenia subjects
Tamura et al. [138]Forebrain Reelin ↑ Methylation at three sites within reelin promoter in the forebrain of schizophrenia subjects
↓ Expression of reelin mRNA in the forebrain of schizophrenia subjects
Fiori and Turecki [85]PFC SMOX
SMS
No effects of promoter’s methylation level in SMOX and SMS on expression levels
Fiori and Turecki [85]PFC SAT1 Negative correlation between promoter’s methylation levels and expression of SAT1
De Luca et al. [127]PFC 5-HT2A ↓ Methylation in the promoter region of 5-HT2A receptor associated with a C-allele (trend) in the PFC of suicide completers
↑ Methylation in the promoter region of 5-HT2A receptor associated with a C-allele in leukocytes of suicide attempters
Klempan et al. [147]Frontal cortex QKI No difference in methylation pattern between suicide completers and controls

From: Chapter 13, Epigenetic Effects of Childhood Adversity in the Brain and Suicide Risk

Cover of The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide
The Neurobiological Basis of Suicide.
Dwivedi Y, editor.
Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2012.
Copyright © 2012 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

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