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Gartlehner G, Jonas DE, Morgan LC, et al. Drug Class Review: Constipation Drugs: Final Report [Internet]. Portland (OR): Oregon Health & Science University; 2007 Sep.

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Drug Class Review: Constipation Drugs: Final Report [Internet].

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Appendix D. Excluded Studies

The full-text of the following studies were considered for inclusion, but failed to meet the particular inclusion criteria for this report.

  1. Managing constipation in children. Drug Ther Bull 2000;38(8):57–60.
  2. [A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study to assess the efficacy and safety of tegaserod in Chinese patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi 2003;42(2):88–90.
  3. Abi-Hanna A, Lake AM. Constipation and encopresis in childhood. Pediatr Rev 1998;19(1):23–30; quiz 31.
  4. Anonymous. Tegaserod maleate (zelnorm) for IBS with constipation. Medical Letter on Drugs & Therapeutics 2002;44(1139):79–80.
  5. Anonymous. Lubiprostone (Amitiza) for chronic constipation. Med Lett Drugs Ther 2006;48(1236):47–48.
  6. Arora R, Srinivasan R. Is polyethylene glycol safe and effective for chronic constipation in children? Arch Dis Child 2005;90(6):643–6.
  7. Baldonedo YC, Lugo E, Uzcategui AA, Guelrud M, Skornicki J. [Evaluation and use of polyethylene glycol in constipated patients]. G E N 1991;45(4):294–7.
  8. Bardhan KD, Forbes A, Marsden CL, Mason T, Short G. The effects of withdrawing tegaserod treatment in comparison with continuous treatment in irritable bowel syndrome patients with abdominal pain/discomfort, bloating and constipation: a clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20(2):213–22.
  9. Bassotti G, Fiorella S, Roselli P, Modesto R. Use of polyethylene glycol solution in slow transit constipation. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;31 Suppl 3:S255–6.
  10. Borgia M, Brancato V, Borgia R. [Controlled study on the effects of 2 different therapeutic approaches in the treatment of chronic constipation]. Clin Ter 1986;118(3):165–70.
  11. Borowitz SM, Cox DJ, Kovatchev B, Ritterband LM, Sutphen J, et al. Treatment of childhood constipation by primary care physicians: Efficacy and predictors of outcome. Pediatrics 2005;115(4):873–7.
  12. Bouhnik Y, Neut C, Raskine L, Michel C, Riottot M, Andrieux C, et al. Prospective, randomized, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effects of lactulose and polyethylene glycol-4000 on colonic flora in chronic idiopathic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;19(8):889–99.
  13. Castillo R, Nardi G, Simhan D. Therapeutic response of lactulose to idiopathic chronic constipation. LA LACTULOSA EN EL TRATAMIENTO DE LA CONSTIPACION CRONICA IDIOPATICA 1995;82(2):173–176.
  14. Chaussade S, Minic M. Comparison of efficacy and safety of two doses of two different polyethylene glycol-based laxatives in the treatment of constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17(1):165–72.
  15. Cheskin LJ, Kamal N, Crowell MD, Schuster MM, Whitehead WE. Mechanisms of constipation in older persons and effects of fiber compared with placebo. J Am Geriatr Soc 1995;43(6):666–9.
  16. Chey WD. Review article: tegaserod -- the global experience. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20 Suppl 7:15–9.
  17. Chicouri MJ. Clinical study of Psyllium husk combined to microencapsulated paraffin in intestinal primary constipation therapy. Revista Brasileira de Medicina 2001;58(9):672–676.
  18. Christie AH, Culbert P, Guest JF. Economic impact of low dose polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes compared with lactulose in the management of idiopathic constipation in the UK. Pharmacoeconomics 2002;20(1):49–60.
  19. Coggrave M, Wiesel PH, Norton C. Management of faecal incontinence and constipation in adults with central neurological diseases. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006(2):CD002115.
  20. Corazziari E, Badiali D, Bazzocchi G, Bassotti G, Roselli P, Mastropaolo G, et al. Long term efficacy, safety, and tolerabilitity of low daily doses of isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in the treatment of functional chronic constipation. Gut 2000;46(4):522–6.
  21. Corazziari E, Badiali D, Habib FI, Reboa G, Pitto G, Mazzacca G, et al. Small volume isosmotic polyethylene glycol electrolyte balanced solution (PMF-100) in treatment of chronic nonorganic constipation. Dig Dis Sci 1996;41(8):1636–42.
  22. Cremonini F, Talley NJ. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies in the irritable bowel syndrome. Minerva Med 2004;95(5):427–41.
  23. Dessau RB, Olsen OB, Frifelt JJ, Skott H. Influence of psyllium seed husk on azotemia, electrolytes, and bowel regulation in patients on CAPD. Perit Dial Int 1989;9(4):351.
  24. DiPalma AM, DiPalma JA. Women's colonic digestive health. Gastroenterol Nurs 2002;25(1):3–8; quiz 8–9.
  25. Dupont C, Leluyer B, Maamri N, Morali A, Joye JP, Fiorini JM, et al. Double-blind randomized evaluation of clinical and biological tolerance of polyethylene glycol 4000 versus lactulose in constipated children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2005;41(5):625–33.
  26. Ferguson A, Culbert P, Gillett H, Barras N. New polyethylene glycol electrolyte solution for the treatment of constipation and faecal impaction. Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1999;31 Suppl 3:S249–52.
  27. Fidelholtz J, Smith W, Rawls J, Shi Y, Zack A, Rüegg P, et al. Safety and tolerability of tegaserod in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea symptoms. The American journal of gastroenterology. 2002;97(5):1176–81.
  28. Fijn van Draat CJ, Keuzenkamp-Jansen CW, Douwes AC. [Chronic functional constipation in children]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1993;137(14):706–9.
  29. Franga DL, Harris JA. Polyethylene glycol-induced pancreatitis. Gastrointest Endosc 2000;52(6):789–91.
  30. Freedman MD, Schwartz HJ, Roby R, Fleisher S. Tolerance and efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350/electrolyte solution versus lactulose in relieving opiate induced constipation: a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharmacol 1997;37(10):904–7.
  31. Goovaerts L, Ravelli GP. Lactitol monohydrate for the treatment of chronic constipation: a multicentre study on the efficacy and tolerability of an individually adjusted daily dose. Acta Therapeutica 1993;19:61–71.
  32. Gremse DA, Hixon J, Crutchfield A. Comparison of polyethylene glycol 3350 and lactulose for treatment of chronic constipation in children. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2002;41(4):225–9.
  33. Heckers H. [Constipation in pregnancy--which therapy?]. Gynakologe 1987;20(3):171–5.
  34. Hejl M, Kamper J, Ebbesen F, Hansted C. [Infantile constipation and Allomin-lactulose. Treatment of infantile obstipation in infants fed with breast milk substitutes. A controlled clinical trial of 2 per cent and 4 per cent Allomin-lactulose]. Ugeskr Laeger 1990;152(25):1819–22.
  35. Hennemann A. Laxatives. Med Monatsschr Pharm 2004;27(7):228–32.
  36. Heymans HS, Benninga MA, de Groot I, Strubbe W, Buller HA. [Constipation in childhood; evaluation of a diagnostic-therapeutic protocol]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 1993;137(14):721–4.
  37. Hsieh C. Treatment of constipation in older adults. Am Fam Physician 2005;72(11):2277–84.
  38. Jacobs EJ, White E. Constipation, laxative use, and colon cancer among middle-aged adults. Epidemiology 1998;9(4):385–91.
  39. Jalihal A, Kurian G. Ispaghula therapy in irritable bowel syndrome: improvement in overall well-being is related to reduction in bowel dissatisfaction. Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology. 1990;5(5):507–13.
  40. Jewell DJ, Young G. Interventions for treating constipation in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001(2):CD001142.
  41. Johanson JF. Review article: tegaserod for chronic constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004;20 Suppl 7:20–4.
  42. Jun DW, Park HY, Lee OY, Lee HL, Yoon BC, Choi HS, et al. A population-based study on bowel habits in a Korean community: prevalence of functional constipation and self-reported constipation. Dig Dis Sci 2006;51(8):1471–7.
  43. Karni H. [Therapy of constipation in geriatric patients]. Schweiz Rundsch Med Prax 1985;74(6):128–30.
  44. Kennedy T, Rubin G, Jones R. Irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Evid 2004(11):615–25.
  45. Keuzenkamp-Jansen CW, Fijnvandraat CJ, Kneepkens CM, Douwes AC. Diagnostic dilemmas and results of treatment for chronic constipation. Arch Dis Child 1996;75(1):36–41.
  46. Kinnunen O, Salokannel J. Constipation in elderly long-stay patients: its treatment by magnesium hydroxide and bulk-laxative. Ann Clin Res 1987;19(5):321–3.
  47. Kinnunen O, Salokannel J. Comparison of the effects of magnesium hydroxide and a bulk laxative on lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins A and E, and minerals in geriatric hospital patients in the treatment of constipation. J Int Med Res 1989;17(5):442–54.
  48. Kinnunen O, Winblad I, Koistinen P, Salokannel J. Safety and efficacy of a bulk laxative containing senna versus lactulose in the treatment of chronic constipation in geriatric patients. Pharmacology 1993;47 Suppl 1:253–5.
  49. Kinservik MA, Friedhoff MM. The efficacy and safety of polyethylene glycol 3350 in the treatment of constipation in children. Pediatr Nurs 2004;30(3):232–7.
  50. Kot TV, Pettit-Young NA. Lactulose in the management of constipation: a current review. Ann Pharmacother 1992;26(10):1277–82.
  51. Lasch HM, Bozymski EM. A new weapon for the arsenal in the war against constipation? Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95(2):341–2.
  52. Lederle FA, Busch DL, Mattox KM, West MJ, Aske DM. Cost-effective treatment of constipation in the elderly: a randomized double-blind comparison of sorbitol and lactulose. Am J Med 1990;89(5):597–601.
  53. Lewis G, Rudolph CD. Practical approach to defecation disorders in children. Pediatr Ann 1997;26(4):260–8.
  54. Lin SR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenters study to assess the efficacy and safety of tegaserod in Chinese patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine 2003;42(2):88–90.
  55. Loening-Baucke V. Constipation in children. N Engl J Med 1998;339(16):1155–6.
  56. Loening-Baucke V. Polyethylene glycol without electrolytes for children with constipation and encopresis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2002;34(4):372–7.
  57. Loening-Baucke V, Pashankar DS. A randomized, prospective, comparison study of polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes and milk of magnesia for children with constipation and fecal incontinence. Pediatrics 2006;118(2):528–35.
  58. Mack DJ, Erwin L, Fulton JD. Chronic constipation in elderly patients. Bmj 1993;307(6916):1425–6.
  59. Mamtani R, Cimino JA, Kugel R, Cooperman JM. A calcium salt of an insoluble synthetic bulking laxative in elderly bedridden nursing home residents. J Am Coll Nutr 1989;8(6):554–6.
  60. Marlett JA, Li BU, Patrow CJ, Bass P. Comparative laxation of psyllium with and without senna in an ambulatory constipated population. Am J Gastroenterol 1987;82(4):333–7.
  61. McClung HJ, Potter C. Rational use of laxatives in children. Adv Pediatr 2004;51:231–62.
  62. McGrath ML, Mellon MW, Murphy L. Empirically supported treatments in pediatric psychology: constipation and encopresis. J Pediatr Psychol 2000;25(4):225–54; discussion 255–6.
  63. McKeage K, Plosker GL, Siddiqui MA. Lubiprostone. Drugs 2006;66(6):873–9.
  64. Medoff J, Katz S, Malik P, Pambianco D, Pruitt R, Poulos J, et al. Open-label, dose-ranging pilot study of 4 weeks of low-dose therapy with sodium phosphate tablets in chronically constipated adults. Clin Ther 2004;26(9):1479–91.
  65. Migeon-Duballet I, Chabin M, Gautier A, Mistouflet T, Bonnet M, Aubert JM, et al. Long-term efficacy and cost-effectiveness of polyethylene glycol 3350 plus electrolytes in chronic constipation: a retrospective study in a disabled population. Curr Med Res Opin 2006;22(6):1227–35.
  66. Miles CL, Fellowes D, Goodman ML, Wilkinson S. Laxatives for the management of constipation in palliative care patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006(4):CD003448.
  67. Mimidis K, Mourvati E, Kaliontzidou M, Papadopoulos V, Thodis E, Kartalis G, et al. Efficacy of polyethylene glycol in constipated CAPD patients. Perit Dial Int 2005;25(6):601–3.
  68. Misra SP, Thorat VK, Sachdev GK, Anand BS. Long-term treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: results of a randomized controlled trial. The Quarterly journal of medicine. 1989;73(270):931–9.
  69. Mozetic de Barros V, Atallah AN, Soares BGO. Prokinetic drugs for the treatment of constipation - predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003(2):CD004120.
  70. Muller-Lissner S, Holtmann G, Rueegg P, Weidinger G, Loffler H. Tegaserod is effective in the initial and retreatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2005;21(1):11–20.
  71. Nilsson SE, Takkinen S, Johansson B, Dotevall G, Melander A, Berg S, et al. Laxative treatment elevates plasma homocysteine: a study on a population-based Swedish sample of old people. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2004;60(1):45–9.
  72. Odes HS, Madar Z. A double-blind trial of a celandin, aloevera and psyllium laxative preparation in adult patients with constipation. Digestion 1991;49(2):65–71.
  73. Ohlen K. [The effect of polyethylene glycol in chronic constipation is not sufficiently evaluated. A systematic literature review]. Lakartidningen 2004;101(34):2568–72.
  74. Orr KK. Lubiprostone: A novel chloride channel activator for the treatment of constipation. Formulary 2006;41:118–20, 122, 128–9.
  75. Otero Regino W, Gomez Zuleta M. [Irritable bowel syndrome: a concise diagnostic and pharmacological therapy review]. Rev Gastroenterol Peru 2005;25(2):189–97.
  76. Pallotta N, Rubinetto MP, Zaccaro C, Gizzi G, Villani V, Barbara L. [Calcium polycarbophil in clinical practice. The therapy of constipation]. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 1993;39(4):175–8.
  77. Pashankar DS, Bishop WP. Efficacy and optimal dose of daily polyethylene glycol 3350 for treatment of constipation and encopresis in children. J Pediatr 2001;139(3):428–32.
  78. Pashankar DS, Bishop WP, Loening-Baucke V. Long-term efficacy of polyethylene glycol 3350 for the treatment of chronic constipation in children with and without encopresis. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2003;42(9):815–9.
  79. Passmore AP, Davies KW, Flanagan PG, Stoker C, Scott MG. A comparison of Agiolax and lactulose in elderly patients with chronic constipation. Pharmacology 1993;47 Suppl 1:249–52.
  80. Passmore AP, Wilson-Davies K, Stoker C, Scott ME. Chronic constipation in long stay elderly patients: a comparison of lactulose and a senna-fibre combination. Bmj 1993;307(6907):769–71.
  81. Pergola F. [Evaluation of a new therapy (beidellian montmorillonite--guar gum) in the treatment of constipation]. Ann Gastroenterol Hepatol (Paris) 1987;23(1):43–6.
  82. Peters S. Constipation. Assessment and treatment in elderly patients. Adv Nurse Pract 1997;5(8):45–6, 49–50.
  83. Pitzalis G, Deganello F, Mariani P, Chiarini-Testa MB, Virgilii F, Gasparri R, et al. [Lactitol in chronic idiopathic constipation in children]. Pediatr Med Chir 1995;17(3):223–6.
  84. Prather CM, Camilleri M, Zinsmeister AR, McKinzie S, Thomforde G. Tegaserod accelerates orocecal transit in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Gastroenterology 2000;118(3):463–8.
  85. Prior A, Whorwell PJ. Double blind study of ispaghula in irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 1987;28(11):1510–3.
  86. Quah HM, Ooi BS, Seow-Choen F, Sng KK, Ho KS. Prospective randomized crossover trial comparing fibre with lactulose in the treatment of idiopathic chronic constipation. Tech Coloproctol 2006;10(2):111–4.
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  89. Rendeli C, Ausili E, Tabacco F, Focarelli B, Pantanella A, Di Rocco C, et al. Polyethylene glycol 4000 vs. lactulose for the treatment of neurogenic constipation in myelomeningocele children: a randomized-controlled clinical trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006;23(8):1259–65.
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