ISSUE: Historically, there has been a paucity of data on the development and transfer of resistance produced by animal husbandry, aquaculture, and agricultural use of antibiotics, particularly solid quantitative data with well-described etiologic pathways and data on trends in antimicrobial usage in veterinary settings. Lack of ready access to data from veterinary reference laboratories has been a limitation in this regard.


  • Collaboratively designed, implemented, and analyzed research on these dynamics, perhaps beginning with case studies (e.g., DT104, fluoroquinolones, gentamicin)
  • Collaborative access to data from veterinary reference laboratories.

ISSUE: An ecological understanding could help in, a number of aspects of animal husbandry, including conditions that foster the enhancement of antimicrobial resistance.


  • Systematic, collaborative development, by the United States Department of Agriculture, American Veterinary Medical Association, Food and Drug Administration, and producer organizations, of strategies and educational materials toward expanding such understanding.
  • Developing cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness models of different on-farm antibiotic usages to enhance the public health community's understanding of farmer perspectives.

ISSUE: Applied research in Europe suggests potential in competitive exclusion therapies or “probiotics,” the constructive use of harmless or beneficial colonizing organisms in different areas of food productions.

OPTION: Researching existing and unexploited literature and additional applied research.

From: Workshop Summary

Cover of Antimicrobial Resistance
Antimicrobial Resistance: Issues and Options: Workshop Report.
Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Emerging Infections; Harrison PF, Lederberg J, editors.
Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 1998.
Copyright © 1998, National Academy of Sciences.

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