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Gilbert SF. Developmental Biology. 6th edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000.

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Cover of Developmental Biology

Developmental Biology. 6th edition.

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Figure 6.20. The Smad pathway activated by TGF-β superfamily ligands.

Figure 6.20

The Smad pathway activated by TGF-β superfamily ligands. (A) An activation complex is formed by the binding of the ligand by the type I and type II receptors. This allows the type II receptor to phosphorylate the type I receptor on particular serine or threonine residues (of the “GS box”). The phosphorylated type I receptor protein can now phosphorylate the Smad proteins. (B) Those receptors that bind TGF-β family proteins or members of the activin family phosphorylate Smads 2 and 3. Those receptors that bind to BMP family proteins phosphorylate Smads 1 and 6. These Smads can complex with Smad 4 to form active transcription factors. A simplified version of the pathway is shown at the left.


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