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Institute of Medicine (US). Facing the Reality of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in India: Challenges and Potential Solutions: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the Institute of Medicine, the Indian National Science Academy, and the Indian Council of Medical Research. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2012.

Cover of Facing the Reality of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in India

Facing the Reality of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in India: Challenges and Potential Solutions: Summary of a Joint Workshop by the Institute of Medicine, the Indian National Science Academy, and the Indian Council of Medical Research.

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Appendix CParticipant Biographies

Shelly Batra, M.D., is President and Cofounder of Operation ASHA, a renowned senior obstetrician and gynecologist, an advanced laparoscopy surgeon, and a best-selling author in Delhi. Since 1991, she has been working tirelessly for slum dwellers in Delhi, not only by providing free consultations and counseling but also by operating on sick patients free of charge and organizing a team of specialists to help her in this work. She has also been involved with the Free Patient Department of Batra Hospital and Medical Research Center, which is run for the benefit of poor patients. Dr. Batra has worked pro bono for the dissemination of medical information with many television stations and newspapers and written two books for Penguin Publishers. She previously taught public health at the University of Chicago, Harris School of Public Policy, and has lectured at major Ivy League universities. With her medical background, she brings the experience necessary for running a health NGO. She is skilled at donor relations and fundraising and at representing Operation ASHA. Dr. Batra has been the recipient of multiple awards and recognitions, including the Exemplary Contribution Award for selfless work for the underserved, given by the Indian Medical Association.

Mercedes C. Becerra, Sc.D., is assistant professor in the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. She is a graduate of Harvard College (A.B. in history) and earned a doctor of science degree in epidemiology at the Harvard School of Public Health. Dr. Becerra's research focuses on the treatment of TB and the burden of this disease in patient households. She is the principal investigator of a large ongoing study of the epidemiology of drug-resistant TB in Peru, which is supported by grants from the U.S. National Institutes of Health. She is also the recipient of a Charles H. Hood Foundation Child Health Research Award and is supported by a career development award from the U.S. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. For more than 15 years, Dr. Becerra has worked with Partners In Health—an international non-profit organization that provides direct health care services and undertakes research and advocacy activities on behalf of those who are sick and living in poverty—helping to build and evaluate programs that treat patients with MDR TB.

Digambar Behera, M.D., is currently director of the LRS Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases in New Delhi. Formerly, he was professor in the Department of Pulmonary Medicine at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh. He completed his graduation from Sriram Chandra Bhanj Medical College in Cuttack in 1978 and post-graduation in medicine from the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh in 1980. Dr. Behera has passed the National Board of Examinations in both General Medicine (1982) and Respiratory Medicine (1983). He received training at the University of Washington, Seattle, under the International Fogarty Fellowship awarded by NIH. Additionally, he received two International Cancer Research Exchange Technology Transfer Fellowships from the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) to study lung cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark, and Sydney, Australia. Furthermore, he underwent training at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York. He has received 19 national and 7 international awards for his scientific contributions and has authored over 300 publications in national and international peer-reviewed journals. He is the author of six books, including one single-author two-volume textbook on pulmonary medicine, and is regarded as one of the foremost pulmonologists in India. Dr. Behera's current research interests include the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of drug-resistant TB, lung cancer, smoking, pollution, and induced changes in airway.

Gail H. Cassell, Ph.D., is a visiting professor in the Department of Social Medicine, Harvard Medical School, and Vice President of TB Drug Discovery for the not-for-profit Infectious Disease Research Institute in Seattle. Dr. Cassell recently retired as vice president, scientific affairs, and distinguished Lilly research scholar for infectious diseases, Eli Lilly & Co., in Indianapolis, Indiana. In this capacity, among other things, she was responsible for initiating and leading the not-for-profit Lilly TB Drug Discovery Initiative, launched in 2007. In 2003, she was one of two individuals at Lilly who initiated and developed the Lilly Multidrug Resistant Tuberculosis Partnership. The partnership has resulted in company support to date amounting to $135 million and is the largest philanthropic effort in Lilly's 125-year history. The partnership now involves more than 20 partners, including WHO and CDC. Dr. Cassell is the former vice president of infectious diseases drug discovery and clinical development at Lilly, where she led the program for a hepatitis C protease inhibitor from the discovery phase to clinical candidate. The compound is now in phase III clinical trials under the direction of Vertex. Prior to joining Lilly in 1997, Dr. Cassell was Charles H. McCauley professor and chairman of the Department of Microbiology at the University of Alabama Schools of Medicine and Dentistry at Birmingham, a department that ranked first in research funding from NIH during the decade of her leadership. She obtained her B.S. from the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa and in 1993 was selected by that institution as one of the top 31 female graduates of the 20th century. Dr. Cassell obtained her Ph.D. in microbiology from the University of Alabama at Birmingham and was selected as the university's 2003 Distinguished Alumnus.

Puneet K. Dewan, M.D., is medical officer, tuberculosis, with the WHO Regional Office for Southeast Asia. He is a graduate of the University of California, Los Angeles, and an internal medicine physician with the University of Washington, Seattle. He joined the U.S. CDC as an Epidemic Intelligence Service officer in 2001 in the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination. For more than 10 years, he has worked on TB control, from local program management and clinical care in San Francisco, to technical and policy analysis and advice for ministries of health in multiple countries, most notably India. Dr. Dewan is a recipient of the U.S. Public Health Service's Outstanding Service Medal, and he seeks to improve the quality and efficacy of TB control services in those countries with the highest TB burden.

Kunchok Dorjee, M.D., M.P.H., was born and raised in the Tibetan exile community in India. He completed high school at Tibetan Children's Village School in Dharamsala, India. His medical education was completed in 2004 at Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla, India. Dr. Dorjee has worked as a medical officer in the Delek Hospital in Dharamsala, the seat of the Tibetan Government in Exile. In 2008, he received the U.S. Government's Fulbright Scholarship Award. He completed his master of public health degree at Stony Brook University in New York in May 2010. In June 2010, he attended the Graduate Summer Institute of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Dr. Dorjee received the ICHORTA Scholarship Award to attend training in operational research on TB at Johns Hopkins Center for Tuberculosis Research. From September 2010 to the present, he has been director of the Tibetan TB Control Programme, Delek Hospital, Tibetan Government in Exile in India.

Sébastien Gagneux, Ph.D., is unit head and assistant professor at the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH) and University of Basel, Switzerland. Dr. Gagneux received his Ph.D. from the University of Basel in 2001. Thereafter, he spent 4 years as a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University and 2 years at the Institute for Systems Biology in Seattle. Before joining Swiss TPH in 2010, he spent 3 years as program leader at the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Institute for Medical Research in London, UK. Dr. Gagneux studies the causes and consequences of genetic diversity in M.tb. from a micro- and macroevolutionary perspective. The microevolutionary perspective comprises evaluating the effect of bacterial genetics and compensatory evolution on the reproductive fitness and transmission dynamics of drug-resistant M.tb. The macroevolutionary arm of his research focuses on the global biogeography and population genomics of M.tb. and on the effect of mycobacterial variation on host-pathogen interaction.

Elaine K. Gallin, Ph.D., is currently a partner at QE Philanthropic Advisors, a consulting firm established in 2010 that serves nonprofits specializing in biomedical research, science and math education, and international health. From 1999 through February 2010, Dr. Gallin served as the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's (DDCF's) first program director for medical research. In that capacity, she led the creation and management of a portfolio of grant programs that committed more than $185 million to supporting clinical research. Dr. Gallin also designed and led DDCF's $65 million African Health Initiative. Launched in September 2007, this initiative supports large-scale health services delivery projects designed to provide integrated primary health care linked to rigorous operations and implementation research in several sub-Saharan African communities. Before joining DDCF, Dr. Gallin spent two decades working for the U.S. government, first as research physiologist and then as research administrator, last serving as deputy director of the Office of International Health Programs in the U.S. Department of Energy, overseeing health research programs in countries of the former Soviet Union. During this period, she also spent a sabbatical year working with the Science Committee of the U.S. House of Representatives as a congressional science fellow. Dr. Gallin has participated in numerous professional committees and review panels, including several for the IOM and NIH. She was a founding member and the first vice chair of the Health Research Alliance (an alliance of not-for-profit, nongovernmental research funders). She is currently a member of the Sickle Cell Disease Advisory Committee at the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation at the IOM; the Scientific Advisory Board for the Avon Foundation; and the President's Council of Cornell Women. Dr. Gallin received her B.S. from Cornell University, her Ph.D. from the City University of New York, and completed postdoctoral fellowships in physiology at Johns Hopkins University Medical School and Columbia University Medical School.

Anne Goldfeld, M.D., attended Brown University and the University of California, Berkeley, where she earned a bachelor's degree in zoology. After receiving her M.D. from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, she completed a residency in internal medicine and a clinical fellowship in infectious disease at Massachusetts General Hospital, followed by postdoctoral research training at Harvard University and the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Dr. Goldfeld has been a devoted advocate for health and human rights, particularly as related to refugees working in many postconflict settings around the world. In 1994, she cofounded the Global Health Committee/Cambodian Health Committee with Sok Thim. She has pioneered community-based TB treatment and more recently AIDS treatment strategies in southeastern Cambodia that integrate basic scientific discovery with operational models. Dr. Goldfeld is a senior investigator at Uganda's Infectious Diseases Institute (IDI), a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and a physician in medicine in the Division of Infectious Disease at Brigham and Women's Hospital.

Seyed E. Hasnain, Ph.D., D.Sc., is professor at the School of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi. Dr. Hasnain's laboratory works on the molecular pathogenesis of infectious organisms and is designing novel intervention strategies, currently focused on the functional molecular infection epidemiology of M.tb. Studying the dissemination dynamics of M.tb. isolates from India, using genetic typing, he showed the presence of ancestral isolates as the predominant form circulating in India, which could explain the lack of concordance between bacterial load and disease burden in the Indian population. Functional characterization of M.tb. with the hypothetical PE/PPE protein family has demonstrated their importance as diagnostics, vaccine candidates, and drug targets. Dr. Hasnain has also contributed extensively to understanding of the transcriptional regulation and high-level expression of heterologous genes in the baculovirus insect cell system.

Kiran Katoch, M.D., M.B.B.S., is director of the National JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases, ICMR, in Agra, India. She also plans and coordinates the work of the Model Rural Health Research Unit in Ghatampur, Kanpur, which includes the epidemiology of various diseases and other health-related issues. Dr. Katoch has 33 years of experience in medical research—29 years in leprosy and 12 years in TB, filariasis, and other health problems of the rural population. After completing her medical degree in 1979, Dr. Katoch joined what was then called the Central JALMA Institute for Leprosy. From 1979 to the present, she has held a number of positions at the institute, including research officer, senior research officer, assistant director and head of Medical Unit I, deputy director senior grade scientist and head of Medical Unit I, director-in-charge, and director (her current position). Dr. Katoch has produced more than 150 publications on leprosy, TB, and filariasis in various journals and has presented at more than 100 international and national conferences, workshops, and symposia. She has served as a member of various expert committees for national and international agencies, including WHO's Technical Advisory Group on Leprosy (2003–2005). Since the beginning of her career, Dr. Katoch has been working as a clinician/clinical researcher. Her work initially pertained to clinical and therapeutic research on leprosy and during recent years has grown to include TB in field settings such as Ghatampur. Dr. Katoch developed and evaluated several important regimens for the treatment of leprosy. She has contributed to a better understanding of the disease's effects on various body systems, as well evaluated the protective effect of vaccines against leprosy and TB. Dr. Katoch has played an active role in the establishment of epidemiological studies on leprosy, TB, and filariasis at Ghatampur. This program has been expanded and developed into a Model Rural Health Research Unit. As a clinician, Dr. Katoch has coordinated various studies through this Research Unit that use clinical, epidemiological (conventional as well as molecular), and other relevant modern technology tools to address various health issues. Her coordination of the Research Unit's programs goes beyond the main research focus on leprosy, TB, and filariasis to pursue the broader objective of bringing modern technology to the needy, especially deprived sections of society in rural settings.

Vishwa Mohan Katoch, M.D., is secretary to the Government of India, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and Director General, ICMR. His academic qualifications include an M.B.B.S from Himachal Pradesh University in Shimla and an M.D. from AIIMS in New Delhi. His research and teaching experience includes residencies at Safdarjung Hospital and AIIMS (1976–1978); fellow in the Tuberculosis Research Laboratory, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Long Beach, California (1980–1981); and National Institute for Medical Research, London (1984–1985). Other specialized training includes the ICMR for Talent Search Schemes (TSS) fellows and posts at JALMA in Agra in 1978. Dr. Katoch was selected as director of the national JALMA Institute for Leprosy and Other Mycobacterial Diseases in December 2001; as first secretary to the Government of India, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; and as director general of ICMR in 2008. Dr. Katoch has developed molecular methods for rapid diagnosis of TB and leprosy, DNA chips, DNA fingerprinting methods, and viability determination methods such as ATP bioluminescence. He has contributed to 251 national and international research papers. Studies carried out by his research group and with collaborators from other institutes, universities, and medical colleges have led to important new findings and new technologies, such as enzyme-based methods in the 1980s, molecular biology-based techniques in the 1990s, and genomics-based methods in the recent past. These studies have resulted in the identification of new genotypes, new diagnostic techniques, and molecules for better understanding of the molecular basis of drug resistance and mechanisms of pathogenesis of TB, leprosy, and other mycobacterial infections. Dr. Katoch is the recipient of numerous awards, including the Young Scientist Award of the Indian Association of Medical Microbiologists (IAMM) (1985); the Shere-I-Kashmir Shiekh Abdulla Memorial Oration Award (1989); the Dr. C. G. S. Iyer Oration Award of ICMR (1990); the Erwin Stindl Memorial Oration Award of German Leprosy Relief Organization (1991); the Dr. S. C. Agarwal Oration Award of IAMM (1994); the Dr. Manu Patel Prize of the Indian Association of Dermatologists, Venereologists, and Leprologists (IADVL) (1999); and most recently, the JALMA Trust Fund Oration Award (1999) of ICMR, the IAMM Endowment Award (2003), the Ranbaxy Science Foundation Award (2004), and the Excellence in Science and Technology Award of the Indian Science Congress Association (2010–2011). Dr. Katoch is a fellow of a number of societies in India, including the National Academy of Sciences; the National Academy of Medical Sciences; the Academy of Sciences, Bangalore; and the Indian Academy of Science.

Salmaan Keshavjee, M.D., Ph.D., M.A., Sc.M., is assistant professor in the Department of Medicine and the Department of Global Health and Social Medicine (DGHSM) at Harvard Medical School. He is trained as a physician and a social anthropologist and is the director of the Program in Infectious Disease and Social Change at DGHSM. He is an associate physician at Brigham and Women's Hospital in the Division of Global Health Equity and senior TB specialist at Partners In Health (PIH). Dr. Keshavjee completed his thesis work on the anthropology of NGO health policies around pharmaceuticals in post-Soviet Tajikistan. His clinical research has focused on the implementation of drug-resistant TB treatment projects run by PIH and associated treatment outcomes. He has worked extensively with PIH's drug-resistant TB program in Russia since 2000. From 2006 to 2008, he was research director and deputy country director for the PIH Lesotho Initiative, launching one of the first community-based treatment programs for MDR TB/HIV coinfection in sub-Saharan Africa. Since 2007, he has led PIH's Russia research initiative, coordinating a multidisciplinary team studying treatment outcomes in drug-resistant TB. This work is informing efforts to treat drug-resistant TB in the region, including Central Asia, and has resulted in several manuscripts of global clinical and policy significance. Since 2005, Dr. Keshavjee has represented PIH on the GLC for MDR TB, the principal global mechanism for MDR TB treatment expansion, housed at the STOP TB Partnership and WHO. From 2007 until September 2010, he served as the committee's chair. Through his roles at Harvard, PIH, and the GLC, Dr. Keshavjee has advised numerous national programs on the clinical and programmatic management of MDR TB.

Aamir Khan, M.D., Ph.D., is an epidemiologist based in Karachi, Pakistan. He trained in medicine at the Aga Khan University and in public health at The Johns Hopkins University, where he is associate faculty. He is the founder and executive director of IRD, a research enterprise committed to improving global health and development through the use of appropriate technologies. Dr. Khan also directs the Indus Hospital Research Center in Karachi. In addition to his work in Pakistan, he has led large-scale surveys and established research studies in Tajikistan, the United States, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Mexico, and Brazil over the past 15 years. Dr. Khan is cofounder of the Innovations in International Health (IIH) program, based at the D-Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and is a founding member of the openXdata.org consortium. He leads the End-User Requirements group on the Open Source Mobile Data Collection for Vaccine Trials (OMEVAC) and Mobile Innovations in Recording Child Vaccination and Health Data in Immunization Registers (mVAC) grants, based at the University of Bergen. IRD's in-house mobile phone system (Interactive Alerts for Childhood Pneumonia) was a winning entry in the Design Triennial at the Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt National Design Museum in New York City. Dr. Khan serves on the STOP TB Partnership Working Group on MDR TB, based at WHO in Geneva, and helped draft Pakistan's successful $173 million Global Fund application for scaling up MDR TB control.

Ashok Kumar has been public health specialist for Central Health Services (CHS), Government of India, since April 1980. Presently, he holds the posts of deputy director general and head, Central TB Division, and project director, RNTCP/Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Dr. Kumar has worked as Junior Medical Officer, WHO Global Smallpox Eradication (1975); field officer, ICMR, research on cholera (1976); teaching faculty for community medicine at the Institute of Medical Sciences Varanasi and Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi (1977–1980); head, epidemiology, Statistics and Training Division of Central Leprosy Teaching and Research Institute (CLTRI), Chengalpattu (1980–1988); joint director and head, Division of Helminthology at National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), Delhi; director, Guinea Worm Disease Eradication Programme (1988–1995); and assistant director general (TB and Mental Health), Government of India (1995–1996). He has held numerous positions over nearly four decades, including, most recently, deputy commissioner and Head, Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India (1996–2000); director, National Anti Malaria (and Other Vector Borne Diseases) Programme of India (2000–2002); deputy director general and head, Central Leprosy Division, for the National Leprosy Eradication Programme (2002–2004); director, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India (2004–February 2011); and Head, WHO Collaborating Center for the Family of International Classifications, India (2008–2011). He has published more than 125 scientific papers in various national and international journals and has made valuable contributions to more than 300 conferences, seminars, symposia, and workshops at the national and international levels. Dr. Kumar has received numerous awards and honors, including the WHO and GOI Meritorious Service Certificate for Global Small Pox Eradication, WHO Fellowship (1985), Technical Focal Point SAARC TB Control in India, the Carter Cerner (USA) Award for Guinea Worm Disease Eradication, Meritorious Service Award for Leprosy Elimination, the Indian Association of Epidemiologists Award for Guinea Worm Disease Eradication from India, the Dr. B. C. Das Gupta Oration Award of the Indian Public Health Association (IPHA), and the Golden Jubilee Award of IPHA. He has served as a member of the Central Council of the Family of International Classifications Network, WHO (2008 to present); president of the Association of Public Health Specialists of CHS; national president of IPHA; member of the WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) Steering Committee on Implementation Research (2001–2003); member of the WHO Technical Advisory Group on Global Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis; member of the WHO Expert Advisory Panel on Parasitic Diseases; member of the WHO Global Epidemiology Network; elected fellow of IPHA; elected fellow of the Indian Society for Malaria and Other Communicable Diseases; and life member of the Indian Association of Leprologists. In his advisory capacities, Dr. Kumar has visited 29 countries in the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Mediterranean region.

S. Siva Kumar is technical assistant (research) in the Immunology Department of the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai (formerly the Tuberculosis Research Centre), ICMR. His area of research is the molecular epidemiology of M.tb. He has coauthored two papers on the subject, addressing drug resistance among different genotypes of M.tb. isolated from patients in Tiruvallur, South India, and the impact of HIV infection on the recurrence of TB in South India.

Krishan Lal, M.Sc., Ph.D., served as lecturer and joined the National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi, and rose to be director. His research and development contributions are in crystal growth and lattice imperfections and instrumentation, certified reference materials, and data for materials. He has made signifiant contributions in research and development, scientific leadership, and the development of international collaboration. His work has led to a deeper understanding of the nature of real materials and their interaction with radiation an 9d external fields. Dr. Lal is president, INSA, and formerly served as president, CODATA (2006–2010); editor, Zeits für Kristall; and vice president, Asia-Pacific Academy of Materials. He is the recipient of the Professor S. K. Mitra Birth Centenary Gold Medal of the Indian Science Congress Association and the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Visiting Fellowship, and delivered the D. S. Kothari Memorial Lecture. Dr. Lal has been IBM India fellow; visiting professor, University of Tokyo and Tech. University, Darmstadt; honorary professor, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur; visiting professor, Punjab University, Chandigarh; visiting professor, IIT Delhi; and adjunct professor, IIT Kharagpur. He has edited 9 books, has published 22 invited papers and more than 100 research papers, and holds 7 patents.

Edward A. Nardell, M.D., is a pulmonologist with a special interest in TB. He trained in pulmonary medicine at Massachusetts General Hospital, with additional research training at Boston University School of Medicine. While at Boston City Hospital, he became director of TB control for the city of Boston. In 1981, he became chief of pulmonary medicine and director of TB control for the city of Cambridge, Massachuetts, positions he held until 2005. His principal academic appointment is as associate professor of medicine, Harvard Medical School, with secondary parallel appointments in the Department of Social Medicine and Harvard School of Public Health. In the early 1980s, Dr. Nardell became medical director of TB control for the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, a position he held for 18 years. In 2002, he joined PIH as director of TB research. In 2005, he left Cambridge Hospital to assume a full-time research position in the Department of Social Medicine and Health Inequalities, Brigham and Women's Hospital, the hospital arm of PIH. He is also a member of the Pulmonary Division at Brigham and Women's Hospital, where he serves on the pulmonary consult service. Dr. Nardell's research interests include the control of MDR TB in Peru, Russia, and other high-burden countries. His special research interest is airborne TB transmission and control. He currently has a project in South Africa, funded by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), studying the transmission of MDR TB using large numbers of guinea pigs to quantify the infectiousness of MDR TB patients and the effectiveness of various control interventions, including ultraviolet germicidal irradiation. Dr. Nardell is past president of the Massachusetts Thoracic Society and the North American Region, International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. He was the 2005 recipient of the Chadwick Medal of the Massachusetts Thoracic Society.

Neeraj Raizada, M.D., M.P.H., is a medical officer with the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND). He joined FIND in 2008. Dr. Raizada completed his medical studies at the Moscow Medical Academy in 1997. Following this, he undertook clinical practice and has worked in a large number of institutions in Delhi. From 2001, he was associated with M. P. Shah Medical College, Gujarat, India, where he earned his postgraduate degree in public health and also worked as lecturer. His thesis focused on stigma and discrimination faced by people living with HIV/AIDS. He also undertook a number of other studies focusing on various aspects of this disease. In 2004, Dr. Raizada worked as a consultant in TB/HIV coinfection, joining India's RNTCP at the Central TB Division. There he worked closely with the country program manager, focusing on establishing systems to improve access to care for TB patients coinfected with HIV. During his association with the Central TB Division, he actively contributed to the development of the national training modules for TB/HIV, organizing and facilitating training of trainers on TB/HIV across the country, conducting HIV surveillance in TB patients, and developing the national framework for joint TB/HIV collaborative activities as well as a number of new pilot initiatives in TB/HIV.

K. Srinath Reddy, M.D., M.Sc., as president of the Public Health Foundation of India, is playing a major role in strengthening training, research, and policy development in the area of public health in India. Formerly head of the Department of Cardiology at AIIMS, Dr. Reddy is a leading international authority in preventive cardiology. He has worked to promote cardiovascular health, tobacco control, chronic disease prevention, and healthy living across the life span. Dr. Reddy has served on many WHO expert panels and chairs the Science and Policy Initiatives Committee of the World Heart Federation. He is presently chairing the High Level Expert Group constituted by the Government of India to develop a framework for universal health care coverage in India. Dr. Reddy chairs the Core Advisory Group on Health and Human Rights for the National Human Rights Commission of India and is also a member of the National Science and Engineering Research Board of the Government of India. Recently appointed the first Bernard Lown visiting professor of cardiovascular health at the Harvard School of Public Health, Dr. Reddy is also an adjunct professor of the Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University.

Iain Richardson, M.Ch.E., is a graduate in chemical engineering from the University of Edinburgh with a master's degree in biochemical engineering from University College London. He has worked for Eli Lilly & Co. for more than 20 years in the Manufacturing Division. A native of Scotland, he joined Lilly at its Liverpool facility in Technical Services before relocating to the United States in 1991. During 9 years in the United States, Mr. Richardson held leadership positions in the company's Animal Health division before becoming director of manufacturing strategy in 1998. In 2000, he moved to Geneva, Switzerland, where he had manufacturing responsibility for Contract Manufacturing operations in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Lilly Contract Manufacturing operations in the Asia-Pacific area. It was in this assignment that he first began working on Lilly's MDR TB philanthropic initiative, with particular responsibility for the transfer of technology for cycloserine and capreomycin to the identified manufacturing partners. Mr. Richardson relocated back to the United States in 2006. Since then he has been responsible for Lilly's Contract Manufacturing processes globally and is now responsible for Global Supply Chain and Logistics operations for the company. He continues to lead Lilly's transfer of technology and product supply initiatives for the MDR TB program.

Owen Robinson, M.P.P., is partnerships manager for the Mirebalais National Teaching Hospital, a 320-bed public referral center being built by Partners In Health in central Haiti. Prior to joining PIH, he spent 3 years as manager of New Initiatives at the Clinton Health Access Initiative (CHAI), where his work focused on global access barriers to quality TB medicines and other essential health commodities. Mr. Robinson has also served as a consultant and project manager in the health care sector for the Boston Consulting Group (BCG). He holds an A.B. degree from Harvard University and a master's degree in public policy from Harvard's Kennedy School of Government.

Camilla Rodrigues, M.B.B.S., M.D., is consultant clinical microbiologist and chair of infection control at the Hinduja Hospital. She completed her M.B.B.S. from Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) in Pune, India, in 1979, and subsequently served a 5-year Short Service Commission in the Indian Navy as a medical officer. She completed her M.D. (microbiology) from AFMC in 1987 and joined the Hinduja Hospital in 1988. She is currently a recognized postgraduate teacher for Diplomate of National Board, microbiology and an M.Sc. and Ph.D. guide at the University of Mumbai. She served under the Directorate General of Health Services as a member of the task force to assess, review, and suggest measures for antibiotic resistance. She is currently a member of the National Working Group for Tuberculosis on Case Finding and Diagnostics for the National Strategic Plan (2012–2017), Central TB Division, and a member of the National Laboratory Committee (NLC) under the RNTCP. Dr. Rodrigues has authored 162 publications in international and national journals, as well as book chapters, and conducted 68 research projects as the principal or coinvestigator, with TB as a focus of her research. She has received 16 awards/prizes and given more than 400 presentations internationally and regionally.

Dr. Kuldeep Singh Sachdeva is chief medical officer, Central TB Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. He holds a bachelor's degree in medicine and surgery from Maulana Azad College, University of Delhi, along with a diploma in TB and chest diseases from V.P. Chest Institute and an M.B.A. in health care administration from the Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi. Dr. Sachdeva has held several senior positions within the Ministry of Health. Prior to working with the Central TB Division, he was chief medical officer, Essential Drugs Programme, Central Procurement Agency (2004–2006); chief medical officer, Department of Medicine, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi (1989–2003); and zonal coordinator for various public health programs for Delhi (1994–2002), including the Pulse Polio Immunization Programme and the Cancer Control Programme. In his current position as chief medical officer, Central TB Division, Dr. Singh is team leader and nodal officer for programmatic management of drug-resistant TB; diagnostics, including quality assurance of laboratories and laboratory scale-up for newer diagnostics; public–private mix in TB control and advocacy; communication and social mobilization; and health system strengthening for TB control, among other responsibilities. He is also a member of the governing board of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) TB/HIV Centre. In addition, Dr. Sachdeva is a WHO fellow in drug and alcohol medicine from New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry, Sydney, Australia. He has also been a member of a monitoring and evaluation mission for the STOP TB Partnership Challenge Facility, India. Dr. Sachdeva has been a contributor to numerous reports and academic papers.

Rohit Sarin, M.D., DTCD, FNCCP, is a senior TB consultant with more than two decades of experience in this specialization and with specialized training in TB both within India and at the international level in Japan and New York. At present, Dr. Sarin is a senior consultant at the LRS Institute of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. He is a postgraduate teacher for Diplomate of National Board, Students of Respiratory Diseases, and is a national trainer for the RNTCP. Under his leadership, more than 10,000 trainers at the national and international levels have been trained in TB control. Dr. Sarin has produced numerous publications in national and international journals and has contributed to many books on TB. Because of his extensive experience, he is one of the editors of the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis and serves on the editorial board of the Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and the Journal of Delhi TB Association. Dr. Sarin also worked as WHO national consultant for more than 3 years and was instrumental in framing and pilot testing the RNTCP. He has also served as a temporary adviser of WHO on various aspects of TB control in the Southeast Asian Region. He is a member of the World TB Team and has been identified as a global resource for drug-resistant TB. He is a SAARC trainer for MDR TB and DOTS-Plus. Dr. Sarin has been a member of the International Joint Monitoring Mission for the RNTCP and a national RNTCP appraiser for states. He serves on the National DOTS-Plus Committee for MDR TB, the National Committee for Airbone Infection Control, the National Committee for Paediatric Guidelines, and the National Drug Monitoring Committee. He is one of the key people responsible for initiating private-sector involvement in the RNTCP and organized a workshop for the drafting of national policy in this area. He is a national facilitator for training of trainers in DOTS-Plus. He is also a member of the National Core Committee for promoting research under the RNTCP. In view of his outstanding contributions to the cause of fighting TB, the TB Association of India awarded Dr. Sarin the Commendation Certificate and Trophy in 1996. He is also the recipient of the R. Krishna Memorial Prize, the Dr. O. A. Sarma Award, and the Dr. K. C. Mohanty Award. He currently is vice chairman of the TB Association of India.

Pradeep Saxena, M.B.B.S., M.D., is director, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, and head, WHO Collaborating Center for the Family of International Classifications, India. Dr. Saxena has worked in the Central Health Service, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, since 1987. He worked at the Central TB Division from 2003 to 2011 until his current post with the Central Bureau of Health Intelligence in New Delhi. Dr. Saxena has authored and presented a number of papers and book chapters on TB and drug logistics management. He served as member secretary of the technical committees, constitued by the Directorate General of Health Services, which finalized the guidelines for storage of second-line anti-TB drugs to treat MDR TB and also the technical specifications of drugs used for treatment of XDR TB under the RNTCP. Dr. Saxena assisted in the development of strategy for supervision and monitoring of the RNTCP in India as well the revision of technical and operational guidelines for implementation of the RNTCP. He facilitated procurement and logistics management of first- and second-line anti-TB drugs and other medical materials under the RNTCP for various consignees in India. Dr. Saxena has revised training material on procurement and drug logistics management for different categories of RNTCP personnel, formulated annual training plans on procurement and drug logistics management, and organized and conducted various training programs in these areas for RNTCP personnel across the country. He is actively associated with the formulation of project implementation plans for RNTCP Phase-II programs through World Bank and Global Fund support. Dr. Saxena served as a member of the central appraisal team from India's Central TB Division, which visited many states from 2003 to 2006 to evaluate their preparedness to implement RNTCP. He has also participated in a 2009 joint monitoring mission with WHO, World Bank, Global Fund, USAID, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development (DFID), and others, to review RNTCP performance.

Dr. Nagamiah Selvakumar is Scientist G at the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (formerly the Tuberculosis Research Centre), ICMR, Chennai, India. He graduated from Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, and earned a doctoral degree from Annamalai University. His research focuses on the bacteriology of pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB, sputum (acid-fast bacilli) microscopy, and molecular analysis of drug-resistant genes of M.tb. Dr. Selvakumar has been principal investigator for many national and WHO-funded projects. He served as a regional consultant (mycobacteriology) to the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease and is a short-term consultant to WHO's Southeast Asian Region. The Tuberculosis Association of India honored him with a Dr. P. K. Sen Gold Medal Oration award. Dr. Selvakumar has produced more than 85 publications and attended more than 120 national and international events. He has served for 32 years in the Department of Bacteriology, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai. He has served as a laboratory consultant with the National Tuberculosis Programme, India, for more than a decade.

Dr. S. K. Sharma is chair of the Department of Medicine at AIIMS, New Delhi. He has made outstanding research contributions in the area of pulmonary medicine for the last three decades. His seminal contributions in the field of TB, sarcoidosis, bronchial asthma, and obstructive sleep apnea are internationally recognized. He has published 309 papers in various national and international journals. In the capacity of chair of the National Task Force on the Involvement of Medical Colleges in the TB Control Programme of India (2002–2011), he has been responsible for the implementation of DOTS in all of India's medical colleges. Dr. Sharma has edited several books (Tuberculosis; two volumes of Advances in Respiratory Medicine, first edition [2008]; and the second edition [in press] of Davidson's Clinical Cases in Medicine, the first edition of which was awarded First Prize of the British Medical Association in 2009). He has received numerous awards: four ICMR awards, including the Basanti Devi Amir Chand Award; the Saroj-Jyoti Award (twice); the Hari Om Ashram Alembic Award; the Ranbaxy Research Award; the Lupin Chest Oration Award; the Rabindranath Tagore Oration; the Searle Oration; the Dr. Devi Chand Memorial Gold Medal Oration; and the VR Joshi JAPI Award for Outstanding Referee. Dr. Sharma is editor of the Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences, executive editor and section editor of the pulmonology section of A.P.I. Textbook of Medicine (ninth edition), section editor of the Textbook on Clinical Pharmacology, associate editor of the Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, and editorial board member of Chest. He is an expert member of several task forces in ICMR; the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology; the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare; and the National Institute of Immunology. He is chair of several committees in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. He has been the recipient of various fellowships and is an elected member of the Faculty Council of the Indian College of Physicians.

Thomas M. Shinnick, Ph.D., is associate director for global laboratory activities, Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention, U.S. CDC. Dr. Shinnick is adjunct professor, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University. He received a B.S. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, and a Ph.D. (biochemistry) from MIT. He also underwent postdoctoral training at the Research Institute of Scripps Clinic. His honors include a Johnson & Johnson Pre-doctoral Fellowship; a Helen Hay Whitney Foundation Postdoctoral Fellowship; the Arthur S. Flemming Award; fellow, American Academy of Microbiology; and Senior Biomedical Research Service. His national activities include serving as chairman, Division U, American Society for Microbiology; National Tuberculosis Task Force member; and member of the Scientific Advisory Board for the Heiser Program. International activities include serving on the Steering Committee of the Global Laboratory Initiative (GLI) Work Group of the STOP TB Partnership; the WHO STOP TB Working Group on Diagnostics; the WHO Supranational Laboratory Network; and the Steering Committee for the WHO/TDR TB strain bank. Dr. Shinnicks's editorial activities include associate editor of the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases and the editorial board of Emerging Infectious Diseases, Tuberculosis, and Current Microbiology. His scientific interests include understanding the biology and genetics of the pathogenic mycobacteria, elucidating mechanisms of the pathogenicity and drug resistance of M.tb., developing rapid methods for the diagnosis of mycobacterial infections, and using genotyping to support TB control programs and elucidate the dynamics of transmission. Dr. Shinnick has authored/coauthored more than 150 publications in addition to serving as the editor of one book.

Inder Singh, M.B.A., M.P.P., S.M., is executive vice president of access programs at CHAI. He oversees a group of 40 business professionals and scientists and a portfolio of initiatives designed to enable greater access to medicines and diagnostics. He and his team have negotiated a series of agreements with pharmaceutical companies that have lowered the price of drugs for HIV/AIDS, malaria, and TB by up to 80 percent for 74 developing country governments, WHO, and the Global Fund, leading to more than $1 billion in cost savings. Prior to joining CHAI, Mr. Singh worked in consulting and at a series of start-up companies in the information technology and medical industries. He is also the founder of a successful nonprofit organization that supports children undergoing extensive physical rehabilitation. Mr. Singh is a magna cum laude graduate of the University of Michigan School of Engineering and holds graduate degrees in business administration, public policy, and biomedical enterprise from MIT's Sloan School of Management, Harvard's Kennedy School of Government, and the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology, respectively.

Sarman Singh, M.D., is professor and head of the Division of Clinical Microbiology at AIIMS, India's premier medical institution. He graduated in medicine from King George's Medical College, Lucknow, India, and earned an M.D. from the Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India. He was also trained in the epidemiology of infectious diseases at the School of Epidemiology, University of Michigan. Dr. Singh has received several national and international awards for his original contributions in the field of diagnosis of TB and leishmaniasis. He holds seven patents and has produced more than 200 publications in peer-reviewed journals/proceedings. He is principal investigator of more than 12 research projects, mainly on TB and leishmaniasis, funded by ICMR, the Australia-India Council, and the U.S. National Institutes of Health. For more than 20 years, the focus of Dr. Singh's research has been on developing better diagnostic tools for infectious diseases, particularly MDR/XDR TB in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected patients. He has presented his work across the globe. He has also organized three international conferences on opportunistic pathogens in AIDS.

Soumya Swaminathan, M.D., is a pediatrician by training, having completed her medical education at the Armed Forces Medical College and AIIMS in India, followed by a fellowship in pediatric pulmonology at the Children's Hospital of Los Angeles. She has worked at the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (formerly the Tuberculosis Research Centre), Chennai, since 1992, where she served as principal investigator for several clinical trials investigating the treatment and prevention of TB among HIV-infected patients. She has directed HIV-related operational, epidemiologic, and behavioral research. Dr. Swaminathan heads the Division of Clinical Research at the center and is the co-principal investigator for the NIH International Centers for Excellence in Research. She has produced more than 140 peer-reviewed publications and serves on many national and international committees. Her major research interests are in pediatric and adult TB, their interaction with HIV, and nutrition and management of coinfections, as well as pharmacokinetics and pharmacogenetics. Dr. Swaminathan served as coordinator for neglected priorities research at WHO/Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) for two years, overseeing a diverse research portfolio encompassing TB/HIV, malaria, onchocerciasis, visceral leishmaniasis, and other neglected tropical diseases. She is currently chair of the HIV section of the International Union Against TB and Lung Disease and a member of the TB steering committee of the IMPAACT network.

Prakash N. Tandon, M.B.B.S., M.S., is a neurosurgeon who has conducted internationally acclaimed scientific research and has played a critical role in the comprehensive development of neurosciences in India. Professor Tandon received his medical education at K. G. Medical College (now University), Lucknow, and an M.S. degree from Lucknow University. He received speciality training in neurosurgery and allied neurosciences at the Ulleval Hospital, Oslo University, Norway (1957-1958), and the Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Canada. Declining several rewarding offers abroad, he returned to India to start the first Neurosurgical Service at his alma mater in 1961. In 1965, he was appointed professor and founded the Department of Neurosurgery at AIIMS. He catalyzed the establishment of the National Brain Research Centre (NBRC) at Manesar, for which he has been founder president. Professor Tandon's major research efforts deal primarily with neurological disorders of the nervous system of national relevance. This work has resulted in 250 scientific papers, more than a dozen monographs, and a number of chapters in national and international textbooks. Professor Tandon is the coeditor of the Textbook of Neurosurgery and consulting editor of the Textbook of Operative Neurosurgery. He has been president of the Neurology Society of India; the National Academy of Sciences, India; the Indian National Science Academy; and the Indian Academy of Neurosciences. He has served as a member of the Governing Body of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, ICMR, and the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR). He has been chairman of the Central Drug Research Institute, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, and the National Brain Research Centre. He was the founder and Co-chairman of the InterAcademy Panel (IAP) of The World Science Academies, a member of the International Council of Scientific Unions, Indo-U.S. Vaccine Action Programme (VAP), and Indo-U.S. Science and Technology (S&T) Forum (Governing Body). He was elected Fellow of the National Academy of Medical Sciences (1973) and served on its Council and as Vice President. He was elected a member of the Norwegian Academy of Sciences (1987) and honorary member of the Society of Neurological Surgeons, United States (1987). He was a foreign member of the Royal Society of Medicine, London (1992); member of the American Association of Advancement of Science, United States (2002); and honorary life member of the Indian Institute of Advanced Study, Shimla (2002). Currently he is emeritus professor at AIIMS, National Academy of Medical Sciences, and president of the National Brain Research Centre. Awards and honors received by Professor Tandon include Padma Sri (1973); Hon. Surgeon to the President of India (1977–1980); B. C. Roy Award for Developing a Speciality (1980); M. N. Sen Oration, ICMR (1980); University Grants Commission, National Lecturer (1982); Federation of Indian Chamber of Commerce and Industry Award for Life Sciences (1983); Jawaharlal Nehru Fellowship (1984–1985); member, Science Advisory Council to the Prime Minister (1986–1989); Dhanwantari Prize, INSA (1986); Outstanding Alumnus Award, K. G. Medical College, Lucknow (1987); O. P. Bhasin Award for Medical and Health Sciences (1988); Padma Bhusan (1989); S. S. Bhatnagar Fellowship (1990–1995); Basanti Devi Amir Chand Prize, ICMR (1991); B. C. Roy Award for Eminent Medical Scientist (1993); Sir C. V. Raman Medal of INSA (1997); D.Sc. (h.c., BHU); G. M. Modi Award for Innovative Science (1998); INDO-ASEAN Eminent Persons Lecturer (1999); M. N. Shah distinguished fellow (2000–2005); Firodia Award for Excellence in Science and Technology (2003); New Millennium Plaque of Honour in Medicine and Physiology (Indian Science Congress, 2002-2003); Professor Bachhawat Lifetime Achievement Award (Indian Academy of Neuroscience, 2003); National Academy of Sciences, India, President's Gold Medal (2006); and the Padma Vibhusan Award (2006).

Aleyamma Thomas, M.B.B.S., M.D., is Scientist G and Director-in-Charge, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai (formerly the Tuberculosis Research Centre). Dr. Thomas joined the institute in 1977 and has held positions of increasing responsibility from that time. She has experience conducting controlled clinical trials in TB and leprosy, as well as operational research on key aspects of the RNTCP. She is involved in organizing and conducting training on various aspects of TB control at the national, regional, and international levels and teaches undergraduate and postgraduate students from various medical colleges who are posted at the National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis. Dr. Thomas has more than 30 publications in national and international TB and leprosy journals.

Janet Tobias is a media/technology executive and an Emmy Award-winning director/producer with 20 years of experience working for three American networks—PBS, Discovery, and MSNBC. Ms. Tobias started her career with 60 Minutes as Diane Sawyer's associate producer, where she distinguished herself working on a wide range of domestic and international stories. Ms. Tobias then moved with Ms. Sawyer to ABC News to launch Prime Time Live, where she produced/directed both domestic and international stories. Subsequently, she served as a national producer for Dateline NBC and also continued to produce and direct her own stories. Moving to VNI (which became New York Times Television) as an executive producer, she supervised the production of a foreign news show and reporting on a variety of foreign stories. Ms. Tobias then returned to ABC News to head editorial activities at its newly created Law and Justice Unit. In 1998, she began working as an executive with PBS. She continued her directing and writing career, winning two American Bar Association silver gavels. In 2001, she launched LIFE 360, a weekly PBS series. In 2002, Ms. Tobias joined Sawyer Media Systems, a creator of video technology for the web. She also continued to be involved in documentary production through her own company, Sierra/Tango Productions. In 2004, she was a founding partner of Ikana Media, a digital strategy and production company whose primary focus is on health care information. Over the past 5 years she has worked with a variety of clients in the health care arena on subjects ranging from broad-based delivery of health care information to communications efforts around obesity and HIV/AIDS. Ms. Tobias has received a number of additional awards, including two Cine Golden Eagles, two Casey medals for meritorious journalism, a National Headliner award, and a Sigma Delta Chi award. She is a member of the Writers Guild of America and a graduate of Yale University. She serves on several boards. She served from January to September 2009 as a senior fellow at the University of British Columbia, Sauder School of Business Centre for Sustainability and Social Innovation. In 2009, she was appointed to the Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation of the IOM. In 2010, Ms. Tobias became an adjunct assistant professor of medicine in the Department of Health Evidence and Policy at Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

Prashant Yadav, M.B.A., Ph.D., is Senior Research Fellow and Director of Healthcare Research at the University of Michigan's William Davidson Institute and also serves on the faculty at the university's Ross School of Business and the School of Public Health. He is co-chair of the Procurement and Supply Chain Management Working Group of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership. Previously, Dr. Yadav was professor of supply chain management at the MIT-Zaragoza International Logistics Program, where he started a high-impact group focused on global health supply chains, and was a research affiliate at the MIT Center for Transportation and Logistics. Dr. Yadav's research explores the functioning of pharmaceutical supply chains in developing countries using a combination of empirical, analytical, and qualitative approaches. He is the author of many scientific publications in this area, and his work has been featured in prominent print and broadcast media. Dr. Yadav obtained his bachelor of engineering degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, his M.B.A. from the FORE School of Management, and his Ph.D. from the University of Alabama. Before entering academia, he worked for many years in the area of pharmaceutical strategy, analytics, and supply chain consulting.

Copyright © 2012, National Academy of Sciences.
Bookshelf ID: NBK100391
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