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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 582

1.

Vitamin digestion and absorption

Vitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactions. Because humans and other mammals cannot synthesize these compounds (except for...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Statin Pathway

Statins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. This pathway delineates genes involved in statin pharmacogenomics,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Fat digestion and absorption

Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

African trypanosomiasis

Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), are spread by the tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasites are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier and cause neurological damage by inducing cytokines like TNF alpha, IFN...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

PPAR signaling pathway

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

PPARA activates gene expression

The set of genes regulated by PPAR-alpha is not fully known in humans, however many examples have been found in mice. Genes directly activated by PPAR-alpha contain peroxisome proliferator receptor elements (PPREs) in their promoters and include: 1) genes involved in fatty acid oxidation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

HDL-mediated lipid transport

HDL particles play a central role in the reverse transport of cholesterol, the process by which cholesterol in tissues other than the liver is returned to the liver for conversion to bile salts and excretion from the body and provided to tissues such as the adrenals and gonads for...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport

Chylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single molecule of apolipoprotein B-48 (Phillips et al. 1997) which at the time the particle...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

ABC transporters in lipid homeostasis

A defined subset of the ABC transporter superfamily, the ABCA transporters, are highly expressed in monocytes and macrophages and are regulated by cholesterol flux which may indicate their role in in chronic inflammatory diseases (Schmitz and Kaminski 2001, Schmitz et al. 2000). Some...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Scavenging by Class B Receptors

Class B receptors have two transmembrane domains separated by an extracellular loop (reviewed in Adachi and Tsujimoto 2006, Areschoug and Gordon 2009).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Scavenging by Class A Receptors

Class A scavenger receptors contain an intracellular domain, a transmembrane region, a coiled-coil domain, a collagenous domain, and the SR cysteine-rich domain (reviewed in Areschoug and Gordon 2009, Bowdish and Gordon 2009). The coiled coil domains interact to form trimers. The...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Scavenging of heme from plasma

Free heme is damaging to tissues as it intercalates into biologic membranes, perturbing lipid bilayers and promoting the conversion of low-density lipoprotein to cytotoxic oxidized products. Moreover, it represents a source of redox-active iron that, participating in the Fenton reaction,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Retinoid metabolism and transport

Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthine, and especially beta-carotene. After uptake they are mostly broken down to...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Platelet degranulation

Platelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules, dense granules and lysosomes. On activation platelets release a variety of proteins,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Amyloid fiber formation

Amyloid is a term used to describe deposits of fibrillar proteins, typically extracellular. The abnormal accumulation of amyloid, amyloidosis, is a term associated with tissue damage caused by amyloid deposition, seen in numerous diseases including neurodegenerative diseases such...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Vitamin B12 Metabolism

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Folate Metabolism

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Selenium Pathway

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Metabolism of fat-soluble vitamins

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are classified as fat-soluble. Metabolic pathways by which dietary precursors of vitamins A (Harrison 2005) and K(Shearer et al. 2012) are converted to active forms, and by which 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to active vitamin D (Dusso et al. 2005) are...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Regulation of lipid metabolism by Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is the major regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the liver. PPARalpha is also the target of fibrate drugs used to treat abnormal plasma lipid levels. PPAR-alpha is a type II nuclear receptor (its subcellular location does...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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