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Results: 1 to 20 of 250

1.

Epstein-Barr virus infection

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells, causing infectious mononucleosis during adolescence. Primary infection...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Herpes simplex infection

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishment of latent infection in neuronal ganglia. HSV is the main cause of herpes infections...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
377873
KEGG
: hsa05168
3.

Eukaryotic Transcription Initiation

In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase, and therefore the initiation of transcription, requires the presence of a core promoter sequence in the DNA. RNA polymerase is able to bind to core promoters in the presence of various specific transcription factors. The most common type of core promoter...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

mRNA processing

This process describes the conversion of precursor messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA (mRNA). The pre-mRNA molecule undergoes three main modifications. These modifications are 5' capping, 3' polyadenylation, and RNA splicing, which occur in the cell nucleus before the RNA is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Huntington's disease

Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15gene, which...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2, NANOG activate genes related to proliferation

POU5F1 (OCT4), SOX2, and NANOG bind elements in the promoters of target genes. The target genes of each transcription factor overlap extensively: POU5F1, SOX2, and NANOG co-occupy at least 353 genes (Boyer et al. 2005). About half of POU5F1 targets also bind SOX2 and about 90% of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1127697
REACTOME
: REACT_264617
7.

PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis

In germ cells of humans and mice, precursors of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are transcribed from a few hundred sequence clusters, as well as individual transposons, intergenic regions, and genes in the genome. These longer transcripts are processed to yield piRNAs of 26-30 nucleotides...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1127670
REACTOME
: REACT_267790
8.

Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs

Recent evidence indicates that small RNAs participate in transcriptional regulation in addition to post-transcriptional silencing. Components of the RNAi machinery (ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1, EIF2C1), AGO2 (EIF2C2), AGO3 (EIF2C3), AGO4 (EIF2C4), TNRC6A, and DICER) are observed associated with...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1127669
REACTOME
: REACT_268530
9.

RNA polymerase II, eukaryotes

Structural complex; Genetic information processing; RNA polymerase

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
413415
KEGG
: hsa_M00180
10.

MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis

Biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) can be summarized in five steps (reviewed in Ketting 2011, Nowotny and Yang 2009, Kim et al. 2009, Chua et al. 2009, Hannon and He 2004):1. Transcription. miRNA transcripts may come from autonomously transcribed genes, they may be contained in cotranscripts...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Viral Messenger RNA Synthesis

Like the mRNAs of the host cell, influenza virus mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated (reviewed in Neumann, 2004). The methylated caps, however, are scavenged from host cell mRNAs and serve as primers for viral RNA synthesis, a process termed 'cap-snatching' (Krug, 1981; Hagen, 1994)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Abortive elongation of HIV-1 transcript in the absence of Tat

This event was inferred from the corresponding Reactome human Poll II transcription elongation event. The details specific to HIV-1 transcription elongation are described below. In the absence of the HIV-1 Tat protein, the RNA Pol II complexes associated with the HIV-1 template are...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Formation of HIV-1 elongation complex containing HIV-1 Tat

This HIV-1 event was inferred from the corresponding human RNA Poll II transcription event in Reactome. The details relevant to HIV-1 are described below. For a more detailed description of the general mechanism, see the link to the corresponding RNA Pol II transcription event below....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Formation of the HIV-1 Early Elongation Complex

This HIV-1 event was inferred from the corresponding human RNA Poll II transcription event. The details relevant to HIV-1 are described below. Formation of the early elongation complex involves hypophosphorylation of RNA Pol II CTD by FCP1P protein, association of the DSIF complex...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

mRNA Splicing - Minor Pathway

The splicing of a subset of pre-mRNA introns occurs by a second pathway, designated the AT-AC or U12-dependent splicing pathway. AT-AC introns have highly conserved, non-canonical splice sites that are removed by the AT-AC spliceosome, which contains distinct snRNAs (U11, U12, U4atac,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Formation of RNA Pol II elongation complex

TFIIS is a transcription factor involved in different phases of transcription, occurring in a major ubiquitous form and other tissue specific forms. TFIIS stimulates RNA Pol II complex out of elongation arrest. Other transcription factors like ELL, Elongin family members and TFIIF...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Formation of the Early Elongation Complex

Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is controlled by a number of trans-acting transcription elongation factors as well as by cis-acting elements. Transcription elongation is a rate-limiting step for proper mRNA production in which the phosphorylation of Pol II...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

mRNA Capping

The 5'-ends of all eukaryotic pre-mRNAs studied thus far are converted to cap structures. The cap is thought to influence splicing of the first intron, and is bound by 'cap-binding' proteins, CBP80 and CBP20, in the nucleus. The cap is important for translation initiation, and it...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

RNA Polymerase II Promoter Escape

RNA Polymerase II promoter escape occurs after the first phosphodiester bond has been created.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

RNA Polymerase II Transcription Initiation

Formation of the open complex exposes the template strand to the catalytic center of the RNA polymerase II enzyme. This facilitates formation of the first phosphodiester bond, which marks transcription initiation. As a result of this, the TFIIB basal transcription factor dissociates...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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