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Results: 1 to 20 of 342

1.

Vitamin digestion and absorption

Vitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactions. Because humans and other mammals cannot synthesize these compounds (except for...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Statin Pathway

Statins inhibit endogenous cholesterol production by competitive inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the enzyme that catalyzes conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate, an early rate-limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. This pathway delineates genes involved in statin pharmacogenomics,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Fat digestion and absorption

Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Scavenging by Class H Receptors

STAB1 (FEEL-1) and STAB2 (FEEL-2) are very large transmambrane proteins containing fasciclin domains, EGF-like domains, and hyaluronan-like domains (Politz et al. 2002, reviewed in Areschoug and Gordon 2009).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Scavenging by Class F Receptors

SCARF1 (SREC-I) and SCARF2 (SREC-II) are transmembrane proteins that contain multiple extracellular EGF-like domains (Ishii et al. 2002, reviewed in Areschoug and Gordon 2009). SCARF2 may be involved in cell adhesion rather than ligand binding.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Scavenging by Class B Receptors

Class B receptors have two transmembrane domains separated by an extracellular loop (reviewed in Adachi and Tsujimoto 2006, Areschoug and Gordon 2009).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Scavenging by Class A Receptors

Class A scavenger receptors contain an intracellular domain, a transmembrane region, a coiled-coil domain, a collagenous domain, and the SR cysteine-rich domain (reviewed in Areschoug and Gordon 2009, Bowdish and Gordon 2009). The coiled coil domains interact to form trimers. The...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Selenium Pathway

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Retinoid metabolism and transport

Vitamin A (all-trans-retinol) must be taken up, either as carotenes from plants, or as retinyl esters from animal food. The most prominent carotenes are alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein, beta-cryptoxanthine, and especially beta-carotene. After uptake they are mostly broken down to...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Platelet sensitization by LDL

Physiological concentrations (1g/L) of Low density lipoprotein (LDL) enhance platelet aggregation responses initiated by thrombin, collagen, and ADP. This enhancement involves the rapid phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) at Thr180 and Tyr182. The receptor...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

LDL-mediated lipid transport

LDL (low density lipoproteins) are complexes of a single molecule of apoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) non-covalently associated with triacylglycerol, free cholesterol, cholesterol esters, and phospholipids. LDL complexes contain single molecules of apoB-100, but their content of lipids...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Chylomicron-mediated lipid transport

Chylomicrons transport triacylglycerol, phospholipid, and cholesterol derived from dietary lipid from the small intestine to other tissues of the body. Each chylomicron assembles around a single molecule of apolipoprotein B-48 (Phillips et al. 1997) which at the time the particle...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Binding and Uptake of Ligands by Scavenger Receptors

Scavenger receptors bind free extracellular ligands as the initial step in clearance of the ligands from the body (reviewed in Ascenzi et al. 2005, Areschoug and Gordon 2009, Nielsen et al. 2010). Some scavenger receptors, such as the CD163-haptoglobin system, are specific for only...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Visual phototransduction

Visual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are photochemical, biochemical and electrophysiological and are highly conserved across...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Vitamin digestion and absorption

Vitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactions. Because humans and other mammals cannot synthesize these compounds (except for...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
16.

Fat digestion and absorption

Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
17.

Platelet homeostasis

Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory in character. Under acute vascular trauma, vasoconstrictor mechanisms predominate and the endothelium...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Cell surface interactions at the vascular wall

Leukocyte extravasation is a rigorously controlled process that guides white cell movement from the vascular lumen to sites of tissue inflammation. The powerful adhesive interactions that are required for leukocytes to withstand local flow at the vessel wall is a multistep process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Hemostasis

Hemostasis is a physiological response that culminates in the arrest of bleeding from an injured vessel. Under normal conditions the vascular endothelium supports vasodilation, inhibits platelet adhesion and activation, suppresses coagulation, enhances fibrin cleavage and is anti-inflammatory...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Lipoprotein metabolism

Because of their hydrophobicity, lipids are found in the extracellular spaces of the human body primarily in the form of lipoprotein complexes. Chylomicrons form in the small intestine and transport dietary lipids to other tissues in the body. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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