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Links from Nucleotide

Items: 1 to 20 of 174

1.

anterograde trans-synaptic signaling

Cell-cell signaling from pre to post-synapse, across the synaptic cleft

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1388824
GO
: GO:0098916
2.

trans-synaptic signaling

Cell-cell signaling in either direction across the synaptic cleft.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1347010
GO
: GO:0099537
3.

synaptic signaling

Cell-cell signaling to or from a synapse.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1347009
GO
: GO:0099536
4.

whole membrane

Any lipid bilayer that completely encloses some structure, and all the proteins embedded in it or attached to it. Examples include the plasma membrane and most organelle membranes.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1272078
GO
: GO:0098805
5.

Biogenic amines are oxidatively deaminated to aldehydes by MAOA and MAOB

Human monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are flavin-containing enzymes that are present on the outer mitochondrial membrane and act on primary, secondary and tertiary amines. In contrast to the P450s which have a large number of isozymes, MAOs number only two isozymes, MAO-A and MAO-B. These...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Amine Oxidase reactions

Human amine oxidases (AO) catalyze the oxidative deamination of biogenic amines (neurotransmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline, the hormone adrenaline and polyamines such as the spermines) and xenobiotic amines (exogenous dietary tyramine and phenylethylamine). The basic reaction...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Phase 1 - Functionalization of compounds

Phase 1 of metabolism is concerned with functionalization, that is the introduction or exposure of functional groups on the chemical structure of a compound. This provides a 'handle' for phase 2 conjugating species with which to react with. Many xenobiotics are lipophilic and almost...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Biological oxidations

All organisms are constantly exposed to foreign chemicals every day. These can be man-made (drugs, industrial chemicals) or natural (alkaloids, toxins from plants and animals). Uptake is usually via ingestion but inhalation and transdermal routes are also common.The very nature of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Metabolism

Metabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as the inactivation and elimination of toxic ones generated endogenously or present in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Metabolism of serotonin

Serotonin is first metabolized to 5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde by monoamine oxidase. 5-hydroxyindole acetaldehyde is then catalyzed by aldehyde dehydrogenase to form 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Serotonin clearance from the synaptic cleft

Serotonergic neurotransmission affects a wide range of behaviors, from food intake and reproductive activity, to sensory processing and motor activity, to cognition and emotion. One such key regulator is the serotonin transporter (5-HTT), which is observed to remove serotonin released...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Enzymatic degradation of Dopamine by monoamine oxidase

Alternately dopamine is metabolized to homovanillic acid in a two-step reaction in which dopamine is first oxidized to 3,4-dihydroxypheylacetic acid (DOPAC) and then converted to homovanillic acid by catecholamine o-methyltransferase.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Enzymatic degradation of dopamine by COMT

Dopamine once taken up by the dopamine transporter from the extracellular space into the cytosol is metabolized in a two step reaction to homovanillic acid.The first reaction is catalyzed by catecholamine o-methyl transferase and the subsequent reaction is catalyzed by monoamine oxidase...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Dopamine clearance from the synaptic cleft

The human gene SLC6A3 encodes the sodium-dependent dopamine transporter, DAT which mediates the re-uptake of dopamine from the synaptic cleft (Vandenbergh DJ et al, 2000). Dopamine can then be degraded by either COMT or monoamine oxidase.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Neurotransmitter Clearance In The Synaptic Cleft

Neurotransmitter released in the synaptic cleft binds to specific receptors on the post-synaptic cell and the excess of the neurotransmitter is cleared to prevent over activation of the post-synaptic cell. The neurotransmitter is cleared by either re-uptake by the pre-synaptic neuron,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Norepinephrine Neurotransmitter Release Cycle

Noradrenalin release cycle consists of reacidification of the empty clathrin sculpted monoamine transport vesicle, loading of dopamine into reacidified clathrin coated monamine transport vesicle, conversion of dopamine into Noradrenalin, docking and priming of the noradrenalin synaptic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Neurotransmitter Release Cycle

Neurotransmitter is stored in the synaptic vesicle in the pre-synaptic terminal prior to its release in the synaptic cleft upon depolarization of the pre-synaptic membrane. The release of the neurotransmitter is a multi-step process that is controlled by electrical signals passing...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Transmission across Chemical Synapses

Chemical synapses are specialized junctions that are used for communication between neurons, neurons and muscle or gland cells. The synapse involves a pre-synaptic neuron and a post-synaptic neuron, muscle cell or glad cell. The pre and the post-synaptic cell are separated by a gap...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Neuronal System

The human brain contains at least 100 billion neurons, each with the ability to influence many other cells. Clearly, highly sophisticated and efficient mechanisms are needed to enable communication among this astronomical number of elements. This communication occurs across synapses,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

bounding membrane of organelle

The lipid bilayer that forms the outer-most layer of an organelle.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
948870
GO
: GO:0098588

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