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Links from Nucleotide

Items: 1 to 20 of 575

1.

trans-synaptic signaling

Cell-cell signaling in either direction across the synaptic cleft.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1347010
GO
: GO:0099537
2.

synaptic signaling

Cell-cell signaling to or from a synapse.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1347009
GO
: GO:0099536
3.

NCAM signaling for neurite out-growth

The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the nervous system. The role of NCAM in neural differentiation and synaptic plasticity...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Axon guidance

Axon guidance / axon pathfinding is the process by which neurons send out axons to reach the correct targets. Growing axons have a highly motile structure at the growing tip called the growth cone, which senses the guidance cues in the environment through guidance cue receptors and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Developmental Biology

As a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are aspects of the roles of cell adhesion molecules in axonal guidance and myogenesis,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Signaling by Leptin

Leptin (LEP, OB, OBS), a circulating adipokine, and its receptor LEPR (DB, OBR) control food intake and energy balance and are implicated in obesity-related diseases (recently reviewed in Amitani et al. 2013, Dunmore and Brown 2013, Cottrell and Mercer 2012, La Cava 2012, Marroqui...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

IRS-related events triggered by IGF1R

The phosphorylated type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor phosphorylates IR1, IRS2, IRS4 and possibly other IRS/DOK family members (reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et al. 2010, Parrella et al. 2010, Siddle et al. 2012). The phosphorylated IRS proteins...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

IGF1R signaling cascade

After autophosphorylation the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) binds and phosphorylates scaffold proteins, IRS1/2/4 and SHC1, which in turn bind effectors possessing enzymatic activity (recently reviewed in Pavelic et al. 2007, Chitnis et al. 2008, Maki et al. 2010,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Signaling by Type 1 Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 Receptor (IGF1R)

Binding of IGF1 (IGF-I) or IGF2 (IGF-II) to the extracellular alpha peptides of the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) triggers the activation of two major signaling pathways: the SOS-RAS-RAF-MAPK (ERK) pathway and the PI3K-PKB (AKT) pathway (recently reviewed in Pavelic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Gastrin-CREB signalling pathway via PKC and MAPK

Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Signaling by GPCR

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors in humans, accounting for more than 1% of the protein-coding capacity of the human...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

MAPK1/MAPK3 signaling

The extracellular signal regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2, also known as MAPK3 and MAPK1, are phosphorylated by the MAP2Ks 1 and 2 in response to a wide range of extracellular stimuli to promote differentiation, proliferation, cell motility, cell survivial, metabolism and transcription,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

MAPK family signaling cascades

The mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a family of conserved protein serine threonine kinases that respond to varied extracellular stimuli to activate intracellular processes including gene expression, metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis, among others....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

SHC1 events in ERBB4 signaling

All splicing isoforms of ERBB4 possess two tyrosine residues in the C-tail that serve as docking sites for SHC1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Pinkas-Kramarski et al. 1996, Cohen et al. 1996). Once bound to ERBB4, SHC1 becomes phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by the tyrosine kinase activity...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Signaling by ERBB4

ERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain which contains...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Signaling by SCF-KIT

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation of hematopoetic progenitors, melanocytes and germ cells.(Linnekin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

VEGFR2 mediated cell proliferation

VEGFR2 stimulates ERK not via GRB2-SOS-RAS, but via pY1175-dependent phosphorylation of PLC gamma and subsequent activation of PKCs. PKC plays an important mediatory role in the proliferative Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. PKC alpha can intersect the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK cascade at the level...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

VEGFA-VEGFR2 Pathway

Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vasculature. One of the most important proangiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). VEGF exerts its biologic effect through interaction with transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors VEGFR, selectively...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signaling by VEGF

In normal development vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are crucial regulators of vascular development during embryogenesis (vasculogenesis) and blood-vessel formation in the adult (angiogenesis). In tumor progression, activation of VEGF pathways promotes tumor vascularization,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Downstream signal transduction

The role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of around 100 amino acids that can bind a phosphorylated tyrosine residue. These downstream...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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