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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 1013

1.

AGE-RAGE signaling pathway in diabetic complications

Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are a complex group of compounds produced through the non-enzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids, primarily due to aging and under certain pathologic condition such as huperglycemia. Some of the best chemically...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Phospholipase D signaling pathway

Phospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell proliferation and cell survival....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Sphingolipid signaling pathway

Sphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have emerged as a new class of potent bioactive...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Choline metabolism in cancer

Abnormal choline metabolism is emerging as a metabolic hallmark that is associated with oncogenesis and tumour progression. Following transformation, oncogenic signalling via pathways such as the RAS and PI3K-AKT pathways, and transcription factors associated with oncogenesis such...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Central carbon metabolism in cancer

Malignant transformation of cells requires specific adaptations of cellular metabolism to support growth and survival. In the early twentieth century, Otto Warburg established that there are fundamental differences in the central metabolic pathways operating in malignant tissue. He...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Signaling pathways regulating pluripotency of stem cells

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date include embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. ES cells are...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1026136
KEGG
: hsa04550
7.

cAMP signaling pathway

cAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules. cAMP regulates pivotal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

cGMP-PKG signaling pathway

Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated intracellular cGMP level exerts its physiological action through two forms of cGMP-dependent...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Oxytocin signaling pathway

Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and peripheral effects. However, its best-known and most well-established roles are stimulation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Platelet activation

Platelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by adhesion to adhesive macromolecules, such as collagen and von Willebrand factor (vWF),...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Thyroid hormone signaling pathway

The thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and T3 enter the cell through transporter proteins. Although the major form of TH in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

FoxO signaling pathway

The forkhead box O (FOXO) family of transcription factors regulates the expression of genes in cellular physiological events including apoptosis, cell-cycle control, glucose metabolism, oxidative stress resistance, and longevity. A central regulatory mechanism of FOXO proteins is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Physiological and Pathological Hypertrophy of the Heart

Pathways in physiological and pathological hypertrophy of the heart. Largely based on the article from Wang Y; ''Signal transduction in cardiac hypertrophy--dissecting compensatory versus pathological pathways utilizing a transgenic approach." Hypertrohpy of the heart can be a physiological...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes

Cardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, and alpha-1C). In the human heart the beta-1-AR is the pre- dominate receptor. Acute...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Rap1 signaling pathway

Rap1 is a small GTPase that controls diverse processes, such as cell adhesion, cell-cell junction formation and cell polarity. Like all G proteins, Rap1 cycles between an inactive GDP-bound and an active GTP-bound conformation. A variety of extracellular signals control this cycle...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Ras signaling pathway

The Ras proteins are GTPases that function as molecular switches for signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, survival, growth, migration, differentiation or cytoskeletal dynamism. Ras proteins transduce signals from extracellular growth factors by cycling between inactive...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

MicroRNAs in cancer

MicroRNA (miRNA) is a cluster of small non-encoding RNA molecules of 21 - 23 nucleotides in length, which controls gene expression post-transcriptionally either via the degradation of target mRNAs or the inhibition of protein translation. Using high-throughput profiling, dysregulation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
852705
KEGG
: hsa05206
18.

Prolactin signaling pathway

Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone known to be involved in a wide range of biological functions including osmoregulation, lactation, reproduction, growth and development, endocrinology and metabolism, brain and behavior, and immunomodulation. PRL mediates its action through...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

TNF signaling pathway

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF is assembled to a homotrimer and binds to its receptors (TNFR1, TNFR2) resulting...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
812256
KEGG
: hsa04668
20.

Estrogen signaling pathway

Estrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. Estrogen mediates its cellular actions through two signaling pathways classified as...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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