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Links from Protein

Items: 1 to 20 of 284

1.

Epstein-Barr virus infection

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human herpesvirus that is associated with oncogenesis. EBV infection to primary human B lymphocytes leads to induction of EBV-specific HLA-restricted cytotoxic T cells, causing infectious mononucleosis during adolescence. Primary infection...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Herpes simplex infection

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections are very common worldwide, with the prevalence of HSV-1 reaching up to 80%-90%. Primary infection with HSV takes place in the mucosa, followed by the establishment of latent infection in neuronal ganglia. HSV is the main cause of herpes infections...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
377873
KEGG
: hsa05168
3.

Eukaryotic Transcription Initiation

In eukaryotes, RNA polymerase, and therefore the initiation of transcription, requires the presence of a core promoter sequence in the DNA. RNA polymerase is able to bind to core promoters in the presence of various specific transcription factors. The most common type of core promoter...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

mRNA processing

This process describes the conversion of precursor messenger RNA into mature messenger RNA (mRNA). The pre-mRNA molecule undergoes three main modifications. These modifications are 5' capping, 3' polyadenylation, and RNA splicing, which occur in the cell nucleus before the RNA is...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Huntington's disease

Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15gene, which...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

RNA polymerase II transcribes snRNA genes

Small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) play key roles in splicing and some of them, specifically the U1 and U2 snRNAs, are encoded by multicopy snRNA gene clusters containing tandem arrays of genes, about 30 in the RNU1 cluster (Bernstein et al. 1985) and about 10-20 in the RNU2 cluster (Van...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

TP53 Regulates Transcription of DNA Repair Genes

Several DNA repair genes contain p53 response elements and their transcription is positively regulated by TP53 (p53). TP53-mediated regulation probably ensures increased protein level of DNA repair genes under genotoxic stress.TP53 directly stimulates transcription of several genes...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

Signaling by FGFR2 IIIa TM

A soluble truncated form of FGFR2 is aberrantly expressed in an Apert Syndrome mouse model and inhibits FGFR signaling in vitro and in vivo. This variant, termed FGFR IIIa TM, arises from an misspliced transcript that fuses exon 7 to exon 10 and that escapes nonsense-mediated decay....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

FGFR2 alternative splicing

Alternative splicing of the FGFR2 nascent mRNA generates an epithelial specific isoform (FGFR2 IIIb) and a mesenchymal specific isoform (FGFR2 IIIc). The inclusion of exon 8 in FGFR2 IIIb or exon 9 in FGFR2 IIIc alters the C-terminal half of the D3 loop of the receptor and is responsible...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Activation of anterior HOX genes in hindbrain development during early embryogenesis

In mammals, anterior Hox genes may be defined as paralog groups 1 to 4 (Natale et al. 2011), which are involved in development of the hindbrain through sequential expression in the rhombomeres, transient segments of the neural tube that form during development of the hindbrain (reviewed...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Gap-filling DNA repair synthesis and ligation in TC-NER

In transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), similar to global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), DNA polymerases delta or epsilon, or the Y family DNA polymerase kappa, fill in the single stranded gap that remains after dual incision. DNA ligases LIG1 or...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Dual incision in TC-NER

In transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (TC-NER), similar to global genome nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER), the oligonucleotide that contains the lesion is excised from the open bubble structure via dual incision of the affected DNA strand. 5' incision by the ERCC1:ERCC4...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Formation of TC-NER Pre-Incision Complex

Formation of TC-NER pre-incision complex is initiated when the RNA polymerase II (RNA Pol II) complex stalls at a DNA damage site. The stalling is caused by misincorporation of a ribonucleotide opposite to a damaged base (Brueckner et al. 2007). Cockayne syndrome protein B (ERCC6,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis

In germ cells of humans and mice, precursors of PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are transcribed from a few hundred sequence clusters, as well as individual transposons, intergenic regions, and genes in the genome. These longer transcripts are processed to yield piRNAs of 26-30 nucleotides...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Transcriptional regulation by small RNAs

Recent evidence indicates that small RNAs participate in transcriptional regulation in addition to post-transcriptional silencing. Components of the RNAi machinery (ARGONAUTE1 (AGO1, EIF2C1), AGO2 (EIF2C2), AGO3 (EIF2C3), AGO4 (EIF2C4), TNRC6A, and DICER) are observed associated with...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

MicroRNA (miRNA) biogenesis

Biogenesis of microRNAs (miRNAs) can be summarized in five steps (reviewed in Ketting 2011, Nowotny and Yang 2009, Kim et al. 2009, Chua et al. 2009, Hannon and He 2004):1. Transcription. miRNA transcripts may come from autonomously transcribed genes, they may be contained in cotranscripts...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

mRNA Splicing - Minor Pathway

The splicing of a subset of pre-mRNA introns occurs by a second pathway, designated the AT-AC or U12-dependent splicing pathway. AT-AC introns have highly conserved, non-canonical splice sites that are removed by the AT-AC spliceosome, which contains distinct snRNAs (U11, U12, U4atac,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

mRNA Capping

The 5'-ends of all eukaryotic pre-mRNAs studied thus far are converted to cap structures. The cap is thought to influence splicing of the first intron, and is bound by 'cap-binding' proteins, CBP80 and CBP20, in the nucleus. The cap is important for translation initiation, and it...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Formation of RNA Pol II elongation complex

TFIIS is a transcription factor involved in different phases of transcription, occurring in a major ubiquitous form and other tissue specific forms. TFIIS stimulates RNA Pol II complex out of elongation arrest. Other transcription factors like ELL, Elongin family members and TFIIF...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Formation of the Early Elongation Complex

Transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is controlled by a number of trans-acting transcription elongation factors as well as by cis-acting elements. Transcription elongation is a rate-limiting step for proper mRNA production in which the phosphorylation of Pol II...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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