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Results: 1 to 20 of 80

1.

Thyroid hormone synthesis

Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle, delimited by a monolayer of thyrocytes....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Autoimmune thyroid disease

The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

TSH signaling pathway

Human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein secreted by the anterior part of the pituitary gland (1). TSH plays an important physiological role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis by modulating the release of the thyroid hormones from the thyroid...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Glycoprotein hormones

More complex protein hormones have carbohydrate side chains and are called glycoprotein hormones. Hormones in this class are Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; follitropin), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; thyrotropin) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

G alpha (s) signalling events

The general function of the G alpha (s) subunit (Gs) is to activate adenylate cyclase, which in turn produces cAMP, leading to the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (often referred to collectively as Protein Kinase A). The signal from the ligand-stimulated GPCR is amplified...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Hormone ligand-binding receptors

The class A (rhodopsin-like) GPCRs that bind to hormone ligands are annotated here. The hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) are dimeric glycoproteins, sharing an identical...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Thyroid hormone synthesis

Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle, delimited by a monolayer of thyrocytes....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
8.

Peptide hormone metabolism

Peptide hormones are cleaved from larger precursors in the secretory system (endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, secretory granules) of the cell. After secretion peptide hormones are modified and degraded by extracellular proteases.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

GPCR ligand binding

There are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all physiological processes (Frederiksson 2003). GPCRs are receptors for a diverse range...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Peptide hormone biosynthesis

Peptide hormones are peptides that are secreted directly into the blood stream (endocrine hormones). They are synthesized as precursors that require proteolytic processing (not discussed here) to generate the biologically active peptides that mediate neurotransmission and hormonal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Thyroxine biosynthesis

Thyroxine (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodothyronine, T4) promotes normal growth and development. It also regulates heat and energy production. T4 is released from the thyroid gland, the largest endocrine organ in the human body. The primary hormone released is T4 although T3 (3,5,3'-triiodothyronine)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Amine-derived hormones

Catecholamines and thyroxine are synthesized from tyrosine, and serotonin and melatonin from tryptophan.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

GPCR downstream signaling

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it has become clear that this greatly oversimplifies the complexities of GPCR signaling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)

Rhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and thus, can be subdivided into 19 subfamilies (Subfamily A1-19) based on a phylogenetic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Autoimmune thyroid disease

The classification of autoimmune throid disease (AITD) includes Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) or chronic autoimmune thyroiditis and its variants, Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis or primary myxedema. HT is characterized by the presence of goitre, thyroid autoantibodies...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
17.

Metabolism of amino acids and derivatives

This group of reactions is responsible for: 1) the breakdown of amino acids; 2) the synthesis of urea from ammonia and amino groups generated by amino acid breakdown; 3) the synthesis of the ten amino acids that are not essential components of the human diet; and 4) the synthesis...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

biological regulation

Any process that modulates a measurable attribute of any biological process, quality or function. Synonym: regulation;

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
514938
GO
: GO:0065007
19.

cellular response to stimulus

Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a stimulus. The process begins with detection of the stimulus by a cell and ends with a change in state or activity or the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
512589
GO
: GO:0051716
20.

protein maturation

Any process leading to the attainment of the full functional capacity of a protein.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
512481
GO
: GO:0051604

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