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Links from Nucleotide

Items: 1 to 20 of 245

1.

whole membrane

Any lipid bilayer that completely encloses some structure, and all the proteins embedded in it or attached to it. Examples include the plasma membrane and most organelle membranes.

Type
:
structural_complex
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
BSID:
1272078
GO
: GO:0098805
2.

Interleukin-1 signaling

Interleukin 1 (IL1) signals via Interleukin 1 receptor 1 (IL1R1), the only signaling-capable IL1 receptor. This is a single chain type 1 transmembrane protein comprising an extracellular ligand binding domain and an intracellular region called the Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Signaling by Interleukins

Interleukins are low molecular weight proteins that bind to cell surface receptors and act in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion. They were first identified as factors produced by leukocytes but are now known to be produced by many other cells throughout the body. They have pleiotropic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Cytokine Signaling in Immune system

Cytokines are small proteins that regulate and mediate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. They are secreted in response to immune stimuli, and usually act briefly, locally, at very low concentrations. Cytokines bind to specific membrane receptors, which then signal the cell...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Toll Like Receptor TLR6:TLR2 Cascade

TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recognizing peptidoglycan wall products from Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacterial...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Toll Like Receptor TLR1:TLR2 Cascade

TLR1 is expressed by monocytes. TLR1 and TLR2 cotranslationally form heterodimeric complexes on the cell surface and in the cytosol. The TLR2:TLR1 complex recognizes Neisserial PorB and Mycobacterial triacylated lipoproteins and peptides, amongst others, triggering up-regulation of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2) Cascade

TLR2 is involved in recognition of peptidoglycan from gram-positive bacteria, bacterial lipoproteins, mycoplasma lipoprotein and mycobacterial products. It is quite possible that recognition of at least some other TLR2 ligands may be assisted by additional accessory proteins, particularly...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

MyD88:Mal cascade initiated on plasma membrane

The first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also been described for TLR4 and TLR2 signaling. MyD88 comprises an N-terminal Death Domain...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Activated TLR4 signalling

TLR4 is unique among the TLR family in its ability to recruit four adapters to activate two distinct signaling pathways. One pathway is activated by the pair of the adapters Mal or TIRAP (Toll/interleukin-1-receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adapter protein) and MyD88, which leads...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) Cascade

Toll-like Receptor 4 is a Microbe Associated Molecular Pattern receptor well known for it's sensitivity to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is assembled within diverse Gram-negative bacteria, many of which are human or plant pathogens. It is a component of the outer membrane...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Toll Like Receptor 9 (TLR9) Cascade

CpG DNA is an unusual Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP). Cytosine methylation exists in mammalian but not bacterial cells, and most (but not all) CpG in the mammalian genome is methylated. Therefore, unmethylated CpG DNA may signal the presence of microbial infection. Evidence...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

TRAF6 mediated IRF7 activation in TLR7/8 or 9 signaling

In plasmacytoid dendritic cell induction of type I IFNs critically depends on IFN regulatory factor 7 in TLR7 and 9 signaling (Honda et al 2005). IRF-7, but not IRF3, interacts with MyD88, TRAF6, and IRAKs and translocates to the nucleus upon phosphorylation (Kawai et al 2004; Uematsu...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

TRAF6 mediated induction of NFkB and MAP kinases upon TLR7/8 or 9 activation

TRAF6 mediates NFkB activation via canonical phosphorylation of IKK complex by TAK1. TRAF6 and TAK1 also regulate MAPK cascades leading to the activation of AP-1.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

MyD88 dependent cascade initiated on endosome

Upon binding of their ligands, TLR7/8 and TLR9 recruit a cytoplasmic adaptor MyD88 and IRAKs, downstream of which the signaling pathways are divided to induce either inflammatory cytokines or type I IFNs.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Toll Like Receptor 7/8 (TLR7/8) Cascade

RNA can serve as a danger signal, both in its double-stranded form (that is associated with viral infection), as well as single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Specifically, guanosine (G)- and uridine (U)-rich ssRNA oligonucleotides derived from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), for example,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Toll Like Receptor 5 (TLR5) Cascade

TLR5 is the receptor for flagellin, the protein that forms bacterial flagella. Unlike most other Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs), flagellin does not undergo any posttranslational modifications that would distinguish it from cellular proteins. However, flagellin is extremely...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

MyD88 cascade initiated on plasma membrane

Mammalian myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is Toll/interleukin (IL)-1 (TIR)-domain containing adapter protein which plays crucial role in TLR signaling. All TLRs, with only one exception of TLR3, can initiate downstream signaling trough MyD88. In the MyD88 - dependent pathway,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Toll Like Receptor 10 (TLR10) Cascade

Little is known about TLR10 ligands. It has been established that the receptor homodimerizes upon binding and signals in an MyD88-dependent manner (Hasan U et al 2005; Nyman T et al 2008). It may also heterodimerize with TLRs 1 and 2. It is expressed in a restricted fashion as a highly...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Toll-Like Receptors Cascades

In human, ten members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family (TLR1-TLR10) have been identified (TLR11 has been found in mouse, but not in human). All TLRs have a similar Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain in their cytoplasmic region and an Ig-like domain in the extracellular region,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Innate Immune System

Innate immunity encompases the nonspecific part of immunity tha are part of an individual's natural biologic makeup

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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