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Items: 1 to 20 of 122

1.

PI5P, PP2A and IER3 Regulate PI3K/AKT Signaling

Phosphatidylinositol-5-phosphate (PI5P) may modulate PI3K/AKT signaling in several ways. PI5P is used as a substrate for production of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2 (Rameh et al. 1997, Clarke et al. 2008, Clarke et al. 2010, Clarke and Irvine 2013, Clarke et al....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species

Aging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, recent work has shown that dietary restriction (DR) and genetic down-regulation of nutrient-sensing...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Longevity regulating pathway - multiple species

Aging is a complex process of accumulation of molecular, cellular, and organ damage, leading to loss of function and increased vulnerability to disease and death. Despite the complexity of aging, recent work has shown that dietary restriction (DR) and genetic down-regulation of nutrient-sensing...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
4.

COPI-mediated anterograde transport

The ERGIC (ER-to-Golgi intermediate compartment, also known as vesicular-tubular clusters, VTCs) is a stable, biochemically distinct compartment located adjacent to ER exit sites (Ben-Tekaya et al, 2005; reviewed in Szul and Sztul, 2011). The ERGIC concentrates COPII-derived cargo...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Longevity regulating pathway

Regulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible strategy for extending lifespan. Four pathways have been implicated in mediating the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Phospholipase D signaling pathway

Phospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell proliferation and cell survival....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Phospholipase D signaling pathway

Phospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell proliferation and cell survival....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
8.

Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. In this diagram multiple mechanisms...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Regulation of gene expression in beta cells

Two transcription factors, PDX1 and HNF1A, play key roles in maintaining the gene expression pattern characteristic of mature beta cells in the endocrine pancreas. Targets of these regulatory molecules include genes encoding insulin, the GLUT2 glucose transporter, the liver- (and...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Regulation of beta-cell development

The normal development of the pancreas during gestation has been intensively investigated over the past decade especially in the mouse (Servitja and Ferrer 2004; Chakrabarti and Mirmira 2003). Studies of genetic defects associated with maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) has...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Developmental Biology

As a first step towards capturing the array of processes by which a fertilized egg gives rise to the diverse tissues of the body, examples of three kinds of processes have been annotated. These are aspects of the roles of cell adhesion molecules in axonal guidance and myogenesis,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Regulation of insulin secretion

Pancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or inhibit the amount of insulin secreted in response to glucose. Factors which increase...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Integration of energy metabolism

Many hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insulin mediates the storage of excess nutrients, glucagon is involved in the mobilization...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Metabolism

Metabolic processes in human cells generate energy through the oxidation of molecules consumed in the diet and mediate the synthesis of diverse essential molecules not taken in the diet as well as the inactivation and elimination of toxic ones generated endogenously or present in...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Membrane Trafficking

The secretory membrane system allows a cell to regulate delivery of newly synthesized proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids to the cell surface, a necessity for growth and homeostasis. The system is made up of distinct organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi complex,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Vesicle-mediated transport

The transit of proteins and other cargo through the cell requires a cellular transport process in which transported substances are moved in membrane-bounded vesicles. Transported substances are enclosed in the vesicle lumen or located in the vesicle membrane. The transport process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

PI3K events in ERBB4 signaling

The CYT1 isoforms of ERBB4 possess a C-tail tyrosine residue that, upon trans-autophosphorylation, serves as a docking site for the p85 alpha subunit of PI3K - PIK3R1 (Kaushansky et al. 2008, Cohen et al. 1996). Binding of PIK3R1 to CYT1 isoforms of ERBB4 is followed by recruitment...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Signaling by ERBB4

ERBB4, also known as HER4, belongs to the ERBB family of receptors, which also includes ERBB1 (EGFR i.e. HER1), ERBB2 (HER2 i.e. NEU) and ERBB3 (HER3). Similar to EGFR, ERBB4 has an extracellular ligand binding domain, a single transmembrane domain and a cytoplasmic domain which contains...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Signaling by SCF-KIT

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation of hematopoetic progenitors, melanocytes and germ cells.(Linnekin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

Downstream signal transduction

The role of autophosphorylation sites on PDGF receptors are to provide docking sites for downstream signal transduction molecules which contain SH2 domains. The SH2 domain is a conserved motif of around 100 amino acids that can bind a phosphorylated tyrosine residue. These downstream...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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