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Results: 1 to 20 of 77

1.

Formation of Senescence-Associated Heterochromatin Foci (SAHF)

The process of DNA damage/telomere stress induced senescence culminates in the formation of senescence associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). These foci represent facultative heterochromatin that is formed in senescent cells. They contribute to the repression of proliferation promoting...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1270430
REACTOME
: R-HSA-2559584
2.

DNA Damage/Telomere Stress Induced Senescence

Reactive oxygen species (ROS), whose concentration increases in senescent cells due to oncogenic RAS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction (Moiseeva et al. 2009) or due to environmental stress, cause DNA damage in the form of double strand breaks (DSBs) (Yu and Anderson 1997). In addition,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1270429
REACTOME
: R-HSA-2559586
3.

Cellular Senescence

Cellular senescence involves irreversible growth arrest accompanied by phenotypic changes such as enlarged morphology, reorganization of chromatin through formation of senescence-associated heterochromatic foci (SAHF), and changes in gene expression that result in secretion of a number...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1270426
REACTOME
: R-HSA-2559583
4.

Cellular responses to stress

Cells are subject to external molecular and physical stresses such as foreign molecules that perturb metabolic or signaling processes, and changes in temperature or pH. The ability of cells and tissues to modulate molecular processes in response to such external stresses is essential...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1270414
REACTOME
: R-HSA-2262752
5.

DNA Replication

Studies in the past decade have suggested that the basic mechanism of DNA replication initiation is conserved in all kingdoms of life. Initiation in unicellular eukaryotes, in particular Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast), is well understood, and has served as a model for studies...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269875
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69306
6.

Condensation of Prophase Chromosomes

In mitotic prophase, the action of the condensin II complex enables initial chromosome condensation.The condensin II complex subunit NCAPD3 binds monomethylated histone H4 (H4K20me1), thereby associating with chromatin (Liu et al. 2010). Binding of the condensin II complex to chromatin...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269813
REACTOME
: R-HSA-2299718
7.

Mitotic Prophase

During prophase, the chromatin in the nucleus condenses, and the nucleolus disappears. Centrioles begin moving to the opposite poles or sides of the cell. Some of the fibers that extend from the centromeres cross the cell to form the mitotic spindle.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269811
REACTOME
: R-HSA-68875
8.

M Phase

Mitosis, or the M phase, involves nuclear division and cytokinesis, where two identical daughter cells are produced. Mitosis involves prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Finally, cytokinesis leads to cell division. The phase between two M phases is called...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269810
REACTOME
: R-HSA-68886
9.

Removal of licensing factors from origins

Licensing factors are removed from the origin by various means like biochemical modification (phosphorylation) or by physical association with other proteins. This pathway includes the annotations of events in which the fates of different proteins at the origin are outlined.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269796
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69300
10.

Regulation of DNA replication

DNA replication is regulated at various levels via ORC proteins. This pathway includes annotation of individual events that lead to the regulation of replication.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269794
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69304
11.

Orc1 removal from chromatin

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269782
REACTOME
: R-HSA-68949
12.

Switching of origins to a post-replicative state

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269781
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69052
13.

Synthesis of DNA

The actual synthesis of DNA occurs in the S phase of the cell cycle. This includes the initiation of DNA replication, when the first nucleotide of the new strand is laid down during the synthesis of the primer. The DNA replication preinitiation events begin in late M or early G1 ...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269779
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69239
14.

Cyclin A:Cdk2-associated events at S phase entry

Cyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27. During G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdk2. After forming in the cytoplasm, the Cyclin A:Cdk2 complexes are translocated to the...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269778
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69656
15.

S Phase

DNA synthesis occurs in the S phase, or the synthesis phase, of the cell cycle. The cell duplicates its hereditary material, and two copies of the chromosome are formed. As DNA replication continues, the E type cyclins shared by the G1 and S phases, are destroyed and the levels of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269777
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69242
16.

Inhibition of replication initiation of damaged DNA by RB1/E2F1

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269775
REACTOME
: R-HSA-113501
17.

E2F mediated regulation of DNA replication

Progression through G1 and G1 to S-phase transition that initiates DNA synthesis involve many complexes that are regulated by RB1:E2F pathway. RB1:E2F pathway plays a key role in gene expression regulation in proliferating and differentiated cells. As a repressor, E2F remains bound...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269774
REACTOME
: R-HSA-113510
18.

Phosphorylation of proteins involved in G1/S transition by active Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes

The G1/S transition is facilitated by Cyclin E:Cdk2-mediated phoshorylation of proteins including Rb and Cyclin Kinase Inhibitors (CKIs).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269771
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69200
19.

Cyclin E associated events during G1/S transition

The transition from the G1 to S phase is controlled by the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes. As the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes are formed, the Cdk2 is phosphorylated by the Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. This phosphorylation keeps the Cdk2 inactive. In yeast this control is called the cell size checkpoint...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269769
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69202
20.

G1/S Transition

Cyclin E - Cdk2 complexes control the transition from G1 into S-phase. In this case, the binding of p21Cip1/Waf1 or p27kip1 is inhibitory. Important substrates for Cyclin E - Cdk2 complexes include proteins involved in the initiation of DNA replication. The two Cyclin E proteins are...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
BSID:
1269768
REACTOME
: R-HSA-69206

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