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Items: 14

1.

The retinoid cycle in cones (daylight vision)

Rods and cones share the same mechanism for the phototransduction process but perform functionally different roles. Although cone photoreceptors make up around 5% of all photoreceptor cells and are outnumbered 20 to 1 by rod photoreceptors, they mediate daylight vision in the human...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

G alpha (i) signalling events

The classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinases.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Opsins

Opsins are light-sensitive, 35-55 kDa membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptors of the retinylidene protein family found in photoreceptor cells of the retina. Five classical groups of opsins are involved in vision, mediating the conversion of a photon of light into an electrochemical...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

GPCRs, Class A Rhodopsin-like

This pathway was created using the GPCRDB (Horn et al., 1998), http://www.cmbi.kun.nl/7tm/. The groupings are based on the GPCR phylogenetic tree available from the GPCRDB and the training sets used by Karchin et al. (Bioinformatics, 2002, pg. 147-159). The labels indicate children...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Visual phototransduction

Visual phototransduction is the process by which photon absorption by visual pigment molecules in photoreceptor cells is converted to an electrical cellular response. The events in this process are photochemical, biochemical and electrophysiological and are highly conserved across...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

GPCR downstream signaling

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it has become clear that this greatly oversimplifies the complexities of GPCR signaling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors)

Rhodopsin-like receptors (class A/1) are the largest group of GPCRs and are the best studied group from a functional and structural point of view. They show great diversity at the sequence level and thus, can be subdivided into 19 subfamilies (Subfamily A1-19) based on a phylogenetic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

GPCR ligand binding

There are more than 800 G-protein coupled receptor (GPCRs) in the human genome, making it the largest receptor superfamily. GPCRs are also the largest class of drug targets, involved in virtually all physiological processes (Frederiksson 2003). GPCRs are receptors for a diverse range...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Retinoid cycle disease events

The gene defects which cause diseases related to the retinoid cycle are described here (Travis et al. 2007, Palczewski 2010, Fletcher et al. 2011, den Hollander et al. 2008).

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Diseases associated with visual transduction

The process of vision involves two stages; the retinoid cycle which supplies and regenerates the visual chromophore required for vision and phototransduction which propagates the light signal. Defects in the genes involved in the retinoid cycle cause degenerative retinal diseases....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Signaling by GPCR

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors in humans, accounting for more than 1% of the protein-coding capacity of the human...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Signal Transduction

Signal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such as hormones and growth factors, or reacting to other types of stimuli, such as light....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Diseases of signal transduction

Signaling processes are central to human physiology (e.g., Pires-da Silva & Sommer 2003), and their disruption by either germ-line and somatic mutation can lead to serious disease. Here, the molecular consequences of mutations affecting visual signal transduction and signaling by...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Disease

Biological processes are captured in Reactome by identifying the molecules (DNA, RNA, protein, small molecules) involved in them and describing the details of their interactions. From this molecular viewpoint, human disease pathways have three mechanistic causes: the inclusion of...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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