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Links from BioSystems

Items: 1 to 20 of 579

1.

Serotonergic synapse

Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter that plays important roles in physiological functions such as learning and memory, emotion, sleep, pain, motor function and endocrine secretion, as well as in pathological states including abnormal mood and cognition....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Retrograde endocannabinoid signaling

Endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids) serve as retrograde messengers at synapses in various regions of the brain. The family of endocannabinoids includes at least five derivatives of arachidonic acid; the two best characterized are arachydonoyl ethanolamide (anandamide, AEA)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

Cholinergic synapse

Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as learning, memory, attention and motor control. When released in the synaptic cleft, ACh...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

Glutamatergic synapse

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system(CNS). Glutamate is packaged into synaptic vesicles in the presynaptic terminal. Once released into the synaptic cleft, glutamate acts on postsynaptic ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Regulation of insulin secretion

Pancreatic beta cells integrate signals from several metabolites and hormones to control the secretion of insulin. In general, glucose triggers insulin secretion while other factors can amplify or inhibit the amount of insulin secreted in response to glucose. Factors which increase...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

GnRH signaling pathway

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion from the hypothalamus acts upon its receptor in the anterior pituitary to regulate the production and release of the gonadotropins, LH and FSH. The GnRHR is coupled to Gq/11 proteins to activate phospholipase C which transmits its signal...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Dopaminergic synapse

Dopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning and memory, and endocrine regulation. Once released from presynaptic axonal terminals,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

GABAergic synapse

Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). When released in the synaptic cleft, GABA binds to three major classes of receptors: GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC receptors. GABAA and GABAC receptors are ionotropic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Circadian entrainment

Circadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhythms are synchronized to environmental cues. In mammals, a master clock is located...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
10.

Long-term depression

Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and Purkinje cells (PCs) induced by the conjunctive activation of PFs and climbing fiber...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

Vascular smooth muscle contraction

The vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) is a highly specialized cell whose principal function is contraction. On contraction, VSMCs shorten, thereby decreasing the diameter of a blood vessel to regulate the blood flow and pressure. The principal mechanisms that regulate the contractile...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Integration of energy metabolism

Many hormones that affect individual physiological processes including the regulation of appetite, absorption, transport, and oxidation of foodstuffs influence energy metabolism pathways. While insulin mediates the storage of excess nutrients, glucagon is involved in the mobilization...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Oxytocin signaling pathway

Oxytocin (OT) is a nonapeptide synthesized by the magno-cellular neurons located in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei of the hypothalamus. It exerts a wide variety of central and peripheral effects. However, its best-known and most well-established roles are stimulation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

Long-term potentiation

Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus induces glutamate release and activation of glutamate receptors in dendritic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
15.

Renin secretion

The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is synthesized, stored in, and released into circulation by the juxtaglomerular...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
16.

Calcium Regulation in the Cardiac Cell

Calcium is a common signaling mechanism, as once it enters the cytoplasm it exerts allosteric regulatory affects on many enzymes and proteins. Calcium can act in signal transduction after influx resulting from activation of ion channels or as a second messenger caused by indirect...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
17.

Gap junction

Gap junctions contain intercellular channels that allow direct communication between the cytosolic compartments of adjacent cells. Each gap junction channel is formed by docking of two 'hemichannels', each containing six connexins, contributed by each neighboring cell. These channels...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
18.

Morphine addiction

Morphine is an alkaloid from the plant extracts of opium poppy. Although morphine is highly effective for the treatment of pain, it is also known to be intensely addictive. We now know that the most important brain-reward circuit involves dopamine (DA) -containing neurons in the ventral...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
19.

Aldosterone synthesis and secretion

Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood pressure through the absorption of sodium and water. Angiotensin II (Ang II), potassium...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
20.

G Protein Signaling Pathways

G proteins, short for guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins involved in second messenger cascades. G proteins are so called because they function as "molecular switches". They alternate from 'inactive' guanosine diphosphate (GDP) to 'active' guanosine triphosphate...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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