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Results: 1 to 20 of 21

1.

Integration of viral DNA into host genomic DNA

Following nuclear entry, the viral preintegration complex (PIC) must select a site for integration in a host cell chromosome, and then carry out the chemical steps of the reaction. At the chromosomal level, HIV has been found to favor active transcription units for integration. Subsequent...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
2.

Vif-mediated degradation of APOBEC3G

The HIV-1 accessory protein Vif (Viral infectivity factor) is required for the efficient infection of primary cell populations (e.g., lymphocytes and macrophages) and ââ?¬Å?non-permissiveââ?¬Â? cell lines. Vif neutralises the host DNA editing enzyme, APOBEC3G, in the producer cell....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
3.

APOBEC3G mediated resistance to HIV-1 infection

Representatives of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 (APOBEC3) family provide innate resistance to exogeneous and endogenous retroviruses (see Cullen 2006 for a recent review). Humans and other primates encode a cluster of seven different cytidine deaminases...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
4.

Budding and maturation of HIV virion

With the virus components precariously assembled on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, the host cell machinery is required for viral budding. The virus takes advantage of the host ESCRT pathway to terminate Gag polymerization and catalyze release. The ESCRT pathway is normally...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
5.

Autointegration results in viral DNA circles

In this pathway, the viral integration machinery uses a site within the viral DNA as an integration target. This results in a covalent rearrangment of the viral DNA. The resulting DNA forms are not substrates for integration.It has been suggested that the cellular BAF protein binds...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
6.

2-LTR circle formation

The formation of 2-LTR circles requires the action of the cellular non-homologous DNA end-joining pathway. Specifically the cellular Ku, XRCC4 and ligase IV proteins are needed. Evidence for this is provided by the observation that cells mutant in these functions do not support...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
7.

Plus-strand DNA synthesis

Two specific polypurine tracts (PPT sequences) in the viral RNA, one within the pol gene (central or cPPT) and one immediately preceding the U3 sequence (3' PPT), are spared from degradation during minus strand DNA synthesis and prime plus-strand synthesis. At least two discrete steps...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
8.

Minus-strand DNA synthesis

In the first part of reverse transcription, minus-strand synthesis, a DNA strand complementary to the HIV genomic RNA is synthesized, using the viral RNA as a template and a host cell lysine tRNA molecule as primer. The synthesis proceeds in two discrete steps, separated by a strand...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
9.

Uncoating of the HIV Virion

HIV-1 uncoating is a poorly understood process. It likely involves a progressive and partial dissembly of matrix and capsid layers. While viral proteins like MA and Nef are thought to be involved, the primary cause seems to be the cytosolic pH and a simple dilution effect. Successful...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
10.

Vpr-mediated nuclear import of PICs

Vpr appears to function in anchoring the PIC to the nuclear envelope. This anchoring likely involves interactions between Vpr and host nucleoporins.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
11.

Interactions of Vpr with host cellular proteins

Vpr has been implicated in multiple processes during HIV-1 replication, including nuclear import of the pre-integration complex (PIC)(Heinzinger et al., 1994), apoptosis (Stewart et al., 1997) and induction of cell cycle G2/M arrest (He et al., 1995; Re et al., 1995; Zhao et al.,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
12.

Assembly Of The HIV Virion

Virion assembly packages all the components required for infectivity. These steps include two copies of the positive sense genomic viral RNA, cellular tRNALys, the viral envelope (Env) protein, the Gag polyprotein, and the three viral enzymes: protease (PR), reverse transcriptase...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
13.

Late Phase of HIV Life Cycle

The late phase of the HIV-1 life cycle includes the regulated expression of the HIV gene products and the assembly of viral particles. The assembly of viral particles will be covered in a later release of Reactome. HIV-1 gene expression is regulated by both cellular and viral proteins....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
14.

Integration of provirus

For retroviral DNA to direct production of progeny virions it must become covalently integrated into the host cell chromosome (reviewed in Coffin et al. 1997; Hansen et al. 1998). Analyses of mutants have identified the viral integrase coding region (part of the retroviral pol gene)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
15.

Reverse Transcription of HIV RNA

The RNA genome of HIV-1, like that of other retroviruses, is reverse-transcribed (Baltimore 1970; Temin and Mizutani 1970) into double-stranded DNA, which is then integrated into a host cell chromosome and transcribed to yield both viral mRNAs and viral genomic RNAs. HIV-1 reverse...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
16.

Binding and entry of HIV virion

HIV enters cells by fusion at the cell surface, that results in a productive infection. The envelope (Env) protein of HIV mediates entry. Env is composed of a surface subunit, gp120, and a transmembrane subunit, gp41, which assemble as heterotrimers on the virion surface.The trimeric,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
17.

Early Phase of HIV Life Cycle

In the early phase of HIV lifecycle, an active virion binds and enters a target cell mainly by specific interactions of the viral envelope proteins with host cell surface receptors. The virion core is uncoated to expose a viral nucleoprotein complex containing RNA and viral proteins....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
18.

Host Interactions of HIV factors

Like all viruses, HIV-1 must co-opt the host cell macromolecular transport and processing machinery. HIV-1 Vpr and Rev proteins play key roles in this co-optation. Efficient HIV-1 replication likewise requires evasion of APOBEC3G-mediated mutagenesis of reverse transcripts, a process...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
19.

HIV Life Cycle

The life cycle of HIV-1 is divided into early and late phases, shown schematically in the figure. In the early phase, an HIV-1 virion binds to receptors and co-receptors on the human host cell surface (a), viral and host cell membranes fuse and the viral particle is uncoated (b),...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1
20.

HIV Infection

The global pandemic of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection has resulted in tens of millions of people infected by the virus and millions more affected. UNAIDS estimates around 40 million HIV/AIDS patients worldwide with 75% of them living in sub-Saharan Africa. The...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiensHuman immunodeficiency virus 1

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