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Results: 14

1.

Phototransduction

Phototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons by the photoreceptive pigments, the rhodopsins, which consist of a membrane embedded...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
2.

Ca2+ pathway

A number of so called non-canonical WNT ligands have been shown to promote intracellular calcium release upon FZD binding. This beta-catenin-independent WNT pathway acts through heterotrimeric G proteins and promotes calcium release through phophoinositol signaling and activation...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
3.

G-protein activation

Receptor activated heterotrimeric G proteins consist of the Galpha and the tightly associated Gbeta-gamma subunits. When a ligand binds to a G protein-coupled receptor, it stabilises a conformation with an high affinity for the G-protein bound to GDP. GDP is then exchanged for GTP...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
4.

G alpha (i) signalling events

The classical signalling mechanism for G alpha (i) is inhibition of the cAMP dependent pathway through inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Decreased production of cAMP from ATP results in decreased activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinases.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
5.

Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling

Humans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG and to induce secondary axis formation in Xenopus (Wong et al, 1994;...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
6.

Signaling by Wnt

WNT signaling pathways control a wide range of developmental and adult process in metozoans including cell proliferation, cell fate decisions, cell polarity and stem cell maintenance (reviewed in Saito-Diaz et al, 2013; MacDonald et al, 2009). The pathway is named for the WNT ligands,...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
7.

Opioid Signalling

Opioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as the enkephalins, the endorphins or the dynorphins. Opioids possess powerful analgesic...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
8.

GPCR downstream signaling

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are classically defined as the receptor, G-protein and downstream effectors, the alpha subunit of the G-protein being the primary signaling molecule. However, it has become clear that this greatly oversimplifies the complexities of GPCR signaling...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
9.

Phototransduction

Phototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons by the photoreceptive pigments, the rhodopsins, which consist of a membrane embedded...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
conserved biosystem
10.

Visual signal transduction: Cones

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
11.

G-protein mediated events

When dissociated Galpha-GTP and Gbeta-gamma can activate or inhibit different signalling cascades and effector proteins. The precise pathways depends on the identity of the alpha and beta/gamma subtypes.

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
12.

Signaling by GPCR

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs; 7TM receptors; seven transmembrane domain receptors; heptahelical receptors; G protein-linked receptors [GPLR]) are the largest family of transmembrane receptors in humans, accounting for more than 1% of the protein-coding capacity of the human...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
13.

Signal Transduction

Signal transduction is a process in which extracellular signals elicit changes in cell state and activity. Transmembrane receptors sense changes in the cellular environment by binding ligands, such as hormones and growth factors, or reacting to other types of stimuli, such as light....

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens
14.

PLC beta mediated events

The phospholipase C (PLC) family of enzymes is both diverse and complex. The isoforms beta, gamma and delta (each have subtypes) make up the members of this family. PLC hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate (PIP2) into two second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)...

Type
:
pathway
Taxonomic scope
:
organism-specific biosystem
Organism
:
Homo sapiens

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