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On-line plant databases;
Other arthropods;
Other Invertebrates;
Other Eukaryotes;
Archaea and Bacteria;
Culture Collections;

Taxonomic advisors

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Extinct organisms

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Taxonimic Resources

The following list is a compilation of some of the references and on-line resources used by the Taxonomy group at GenBank, ordered by the following categories:


Biodiversity and Biological Collections Web Server (links to variety of databases, museums and other taxonomy resources):

Hawaian flora and fauna checklists:

Index of Organism Names:

Integrated Taxonomic Information System database of biological names:

Internet Resource Guide for Zoology. A directory to biological sites of all kinds, including systematics and nomenclature (not restricted to zoology links):

List of phylogenetic databases and information: http://www.UCMP.Berkeley.EDU/subway/phylo/phylodat.html

Tree of Life:

University of California Museum of Paleontology Phylogeny of Life:

World Species Lists for Animals/Plants/Microbes - the complete list of lists:

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Chretiennot-Dinet, M.-J., Sournia, A., Ricard, M. & Billard, C. 1993. A classification of the marine phytoplankton of the world from class to genus. Phycologia 32, 159-179.


Index Nominum Algarum:

World Data Centre for Microorganisms:

Other phycological collections (links to a number of specialized algal databases):

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Farr, D.G. et al. 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. American Phytopathological Society Press.

Kirk, P.M., Cannon, P.F. and David, J.C. 2001 Ainsworth and Bisby's Dictionary of the Fungi (9th edition). CAB International.

Kurtzman, C.P. and J.W. Fell (Eds.). 1998. The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study (4th edition). Elsevier.

Rossman, A.Y., M.E. Palm, and L.J. Spielman. 1987. A Literature Guide for the Identification of Plant Pathogenic Fungi. American Phytopathological Society Press

Anamorph/Teleomorph Query:

The CABI Bioscience Database of Fungal Names:

Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) fungal database:

Mycotaxon on-line:

Mycologia on-line:


Mycology Resources:

North American Lichen Checklist:

Systematic Biology and Mycology Fungal Databases:

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On-line plant databases

Plant Names (General)

The International Plant Names Index (source databases are the Index Kewensis, Gray Card Index and Australian Plant Names Index):

W3TROPICOS - The Missouri Botanical Garden vascular plant database:

IOPI Global Plant Checklist Prototype:


Names in Current Use for Extant Plant -- Genera:

Index Nominum Genericorum:

Cultivated Plants

USDA/Agricultural Research Service taxonomy:

Institute for Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK):

Regional Floras and Individual Plant Groups

Checklist of World Ferns:

The Cycad Pages:

The Gymnosperm Database:

Catalogue of New World Grasses:

Flora Europaea:

Flora of China Checklist:

LegumeWeb (pea family):

CalFlora (California flora on-line):

General Botany Resources

Internet Directory for Botany:

Index Herbariorum:

APG II Classification (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group):

Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (PF Stevens, 2003):


TROPICOS Missouri Botanical Garden bryophyte database:

New York Botanical Garden bryophyte catalog:

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Nelson, J.S. Fishes of the world. 3rd ed., J. Wiley & Sons, 1994.

Catalog of Fishes on-line:


Guide to South American Cichlids:

Neodat Project:

Amphibians of the World on-line version (1999):

University of California AmphibiaWeb:

The Reptile Database:

Edwards E.P. 1982. A coded workbook of birds of the world Volume1: Non-Passeriformes. 2nd ed., Sweet Briar (Virginia) (Common names).

Edwards, E.P. 1986. A coded workbook of birds of the world Volume 2: Passeriformes. 2nd ed., Sweet Briar (Virginia) (Common names).

Sibley, C.G. and Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale Univ. Press.

BirdNet: The Ornithological Information Source:

Wilson and Reeder's Mammal species of the world on-line:

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Arnett, R.H.,Jr. 1993. American Insects. A Handbook of the Insects of America North of Mexico. The Sandhill Crane Press, Gainesville, Fl.

Common Names of Insects and Related Organisms. Committee on Common Names of Insects (Chairman: F.G. Werner). 1982. Entomological Society of America.

Miller, J. Y. 1992. The Common Names of North American Butterflies. Smithsonian Institution Press.

Patterson J.T. & W.S. Stone. 1952. Evolution in the Genus Drosophila. Macmillan, New York.

Nomina Insecta Nearctica:



Diptera (Australasian and Oceanian):


Formicidae (AMNH ants):

Fulgoromorpha Lists On the WEB:









Social insect page:

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Other arthropods

Crustacean classification to family level: Martin, J. W. and G. E. Davis. IN PRESS. An Updated Classification of the Recent Crustacea. Science Series, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Decapod Crustaceans. 1989. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 17, Bethesda, Maryland.

Holthuis, L.B.: Shrimps and Prawns of the World. An Annotated Catalogue of Species of Interest to Fisheries. 1980. FAO Fisheries Synopsis (FAO Species Catalogue) # 125, vol. 1.

The Amphipod Homepage:



Heterometrus (Asian forest scorpions):

Smithsonian world list of aquatic and terrestrial Isopoda:


The World Spider Catalog:

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Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 1998. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland. 2nd edition.

Roper, C.F.E., Sweeney, M.J., and Nauen, C.E.: Cephalopods of the World. FAO Fisheries Synopsis (FAO Species Catalogue) #125, vol. 3.

Gastropods, scaphopods, and cephalopods:

Opisthobranchs from around the World:

Shells database (Mollusca classification):

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Other Invertebrates

Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Mollusks. 1998. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26, Bethesda, Maryland. 2nd edition.

Cairns, S.D. et al. 1991. Common and Scientific names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada: Cnidaria and Ctenophora. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 22. Bethesda, Maryland.

Khalil, L.F., A. Jones and R.A. Bray, (Eds.). 1994. Keys to the Cestode Parasites of Vertebrates. CAB International.

Pennak R.W. 1989. Fresh-water Invertebrates of the United States. Protozoa to Mollusca. 3rd Edition. Jonh Wiley and Sons, New York.

Roper, C.F.E., Sweeney, M.J., and Nauen, C.E.: Cephalopods of the World. FAO Fisheries Synopsis (FAO Species Catalogue) #125, vol. 3.


Brachiopoda: Classification to family level:

Indexes to Bryozoan Taxa:

Current Classification of Recent Cephalopoda:

Cnidaria: Hexacorallians of the World:

Corals: List of Extant Stony Corals:

Ctenophora classification:


Gastropods, scaphopods, cephalopods:

Links to papers on Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, other invertebrates:

Monogenea species:

Monogenea (flatworm) classification:

Opisthobranchs from around the World:

Boropjevic, R., Boury-Esnault, N. and Vacelet, J. (1990). A revision of the supraspecific classification of the subclass Calcinea (Porifera, class Calcarea). Bull. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. Paris. 4 ser. 12, sect. A (2): 243-276.



Turbellaria classification:

Neogene marine biota - bivalves, gastropods, bryozoans, corals, forams, ostracodes (fossil and living):

Shells Database:

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Other Eukaryotes

The Astrobiology Institute's Microscope page has a classification of eukaryotes to the genus level:

Aescht, E. 2001. Catalogue of the generic names of ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora). Denisia 01. Oberoesterreichisches Landesmuseum, Linz, Austria.

Canning, E.U., Lom, J. & Dykova, I. 1986. The microsporidia of vertebrates. p. 289. Academic Press, London, Orlando.

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1993. Kingdom Protozoa and its 18 phyla. Microbiological Reviews 57, 953-994.

Corliss, J. O. 1979. The ciliated protozoa: characterization, classification, and guide to the literature, 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, New York, New York.

Lee, J.J., Hutner, S.H. & Bovee, E.C. 1985. Illustrated guide to the Protozoa. Society of Protozoologists.

Levine et al. 1980. A newly revised classification of the protozoa. Journal of Protozoology 27, 37-58.

Patterson, DJ. 1994. Protozoa: Evolution and Systematics. Proceedings of the IX International Congress of Protozoology, Berlin 1993. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart, Jena, New York.

Page, F. C. & Siemensma, F. J. 1991. Nackte Rhizopoda und Heliozoa. Fischer-Verlag, Stuttgart.

Small, E. B. & Lynn, D. H. 1985. Phylum Ciliophora. In An illustrated guide to the Protozoa (ed. J. J. Lee, Hutner, S.H. & Bovee, E.C.). Society of Protozoolo gists, Lawrence.

Sprague, V. 1977. Classification and phylogeny of the Microsporidia. In: Systematics of the Microsporidia, Comparative Pathobiology, Vol. 2 (Bulla, L.A., Cheng, T.C., eds.). New York-London: Plenum Press.

Sprague, V. 1977. Annotated list of species of microsporidia. In: Systematics of the Microsporidia, Comparative Pathobiology, Vol.2 (Bulla, L.A., Cheng, T.C., eds). New York-London: Plenum Press.

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Archaea and Bacteria

The Prokaryotes: A Handbook on the Biology of Bacteria, Second Edition, Vol. 1-4, 1991. Springer-Verlag, New York NY. A. Balows, H. Truper, M. Dworkin, W. Harder & K.-H. Schleifer.

Bergey's Manual Trust: contains taxonomic outline for the second edition of Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology:

DSMZ Bacterial Nomenclature up-to-date:

Greengenes. 16S rRNA gene database and workbench:

International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM):

List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature:

Ribosomal Database Project. Bacterial classification:

The Taxonomic Outline of Bacteria and Archaea (TOBA):

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Granoff A & Webster RG. 1999. Encyclopedia of Virology. Academic Press, San Diego.

Index of Viruses on-line (ICTV-7):

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Culture Collections

American Type Culture Collection (ATCC):

Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS):

Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen und Zellkulturen GmbH (DSMZ):

Oregon Collection of Methanogens (OCM):

Provasoli-Guillard National Center for Culture of Marine Phytoplankton (CCMP):

The Culture Collection of Algae at University of Texas (UTEX):

World Data Centre for Microorganisms. Includes fungal, bacterial, algal and viral strain collections:

Home Pages of Culture Collections of the World:

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