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Recent changes to the classification in the NCBI taxonomy database

Brachiopod classification
Mosses
Takifugu and Fugu
What are the Euteleostomi?
Sharks and rays

Brachiopod classification

May 2000.

The brachiopod section of the taxonomy database has been revised. The brachiopod classes Inarticulata and Articulata are no longer used in the classification because the Inarticulata are not recognized as monophyletic in recent cladistic analyses. A monophyletic Brachiopoda is recognized comprising four subphyla: Craniiformea, Linguliformea, Rhynchonelliformea, and Phoroniformea. Recognition of the new subphylum Phoroniformea within the Brachiopoda follows Cohen (2000) [Monophyly of brachiopods and phoronids: reconciliation of molecular evidence with Linnaean classification (the subphylum Phoroniformea nov.). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 267: 225-231]. Classification within the subfamilies Craniiformea, Linguliformea and Rhynchonelliformea is based on the system used in the Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology Part H Brachiopoda, vol. 2 & 3 (2000), published by the University of Kansas and the Geological Society of America. Information from this publication is presented at: http://www.com.univ-mrs.fr/EuroBrachNet/CLASS/Class.htm


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Mosses

The mosses (Musci) have recently been reorganized according to the classification of Buck and Goffinet (2000), in order to more accurately reflect our current understanding of moss phylogeny. Major features of the new classification include: the elevation of the moss clade to Bryophyta (NOT to be confused with 'bryophytes', referring to a paraphyletic group comprising mosses, liverworts and anthocerotes), and the recognition of three new major clades, Andreaeobryopsida, Takakiopsida and Polytrichopsida, of equal rank with Bryposida, Sphagnopsida, and Andreaeopsida. The 15 suborders of Bryales recognized by Vitt (1984) have been folded, for the most part, into four subclasses of Bryopsida (Bryidae, Dicranidae, Diphysciidae and Funariidae).

References cited:

Buck, W.R. and B. Goffinet. 2000. Morphology and classification of mosses. In Shaw, A.J. and Goffinet, B. (Eds.) The Biology of Bryophytes. Cambridge University Press. In press.

Vitt, D.H. 1984. Classification of the Bryopsida. In R.M. Schuster (Ed.). New Manual of Bryology, vol 2, 266-759. Hattori Botanical Laboratory, Nichinan, Japan.


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Takifugu and Fugu

The pufferfish genus Fugu has recently been renamed Takifugu in the taxonomy database. This is based on the recommendation of: Matsuura, K. 1990. The pufferfish genus Fugu Abe, 1952, a junior subjective synonym of Takifugu Abe, 1949. Bull. Natn. Sci. Mus., Tokyo, Ser. A. 18(1):15-20. Takifugu includes the species Takifugu rubripes (formerly Fugu rubripes), which is a well known model organism for the vertebrate genome. Any sequence from Takifugu rubripes can still be retrieved by searching on 'Fugu rubripes', because Fugu rubripes is included in the database as a synonym of Takifugu rubripes.


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What are the Euteleostomi?

The name Euteleostomi was recently included in the taxonomy database for the monophyletic group comprising the the Sarcopterygii ('lobe-finned fishes' and tetrapods) plus the Actinopterygii ('ray-finned fishes'). The group was formerly named the 'bony vertebrates' in the database.

Previously, the name Osteichthyes has also been applied to the monophyletic euteleostomes or 'bony vertebrates.' However the name Osteichthyes has been traditionally applied to the 'bony fishes', a paraphyletic assemblage comprising Actinopterygii and Sarcopyterygii minus the tetrapods. For this reason, application of the name Osteichthyes to the monophyletic group of all Sarcopterygii and Actinopterygii was not well accepted. The name Euteleostomi was first proposed as an alternative, to overcome these problems, in:

Nelson, J.S. (1994). p.65, "Fishes of the World," 3rd edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.


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Sharks and rays

The elasmobranch section (sharks and rays) of the taxonomy database has recently been revised. The Elasmobranchii is divided into two main clades: the Galeomorphi (comprising the clades Galeoidea and Heterodontidea), and the Squalea (comprising the Dalatioidei, Echinorhinoidea, Hypnosqualea, Notidanoidea and Squaloidei). The Hypnosqualea includes the Squatiniformes, Pristiophoriformes, and the Batoidea which was previously named the Rajiformes (the Rajiformes is currently restricted to the Rajidae [skates]). Batoid interrelationships have been revised, though they remain enigmatic. Thus, the classification and phylogeny presented here is not a definitive one. Nevertheless, it is intended to provide a practical and informative composite of the hypotheses presented in the following most recent overviews of elsamobranch interrelationships:

de Carvalho, M.R. (1996) Higher-level elasmobranch phylogeny, basal squaleans, and paraphyly. p.35-62 in: M.L.J. Stiassny, L.R. Parenti, and G.D. Johnson (eds), "Interrelationships of Fishes." Academic Press, San Diego and London.

McEachran, J.D., Dunn, K.A, and Miyake, T. (1996) Interrelationships of the batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). p.63-84 in: M.L.J. Stiassny, L.R. Parenti, and G.D. Johnson (eds), "Interrelationships of Fishes." Academic Press, San Diego and London.

Shirai, S. (1996) Phylogenetic interrelationships of Neoselachians (Chondrichthyes: Euselachii). p.9-34 in: M.L.J. Stiassny, L.R. Parenti, and G.D. Johnson (eds), "Interrelationships of Fishes." Academic Press, San Diego and London.


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