Homo sapiens gene WDR31, encoding WD repeat domain 31.
SUMMARY back to top
RefSeq summary
[WDR31] This gene encodes a member of the WD repeat protein family. WD repeats are minimally conserved regions of approximately 40 amino acids typically bracketed by gly-his and trp-asp (GH-WD), which may facilitate formation of heterotrimeric or multiprotein complexes. Members of this family are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, signal transduction, apoptosis, and gene regulation. Multiple alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been found for this gene but the biological validity of some variants has not been determined. [provided by RefSeq].

RefSeq annotates 2 representative transcripts (NM included in AceView variants .a and .b), but Homo sapiens cDNA sequences in GenBank, dbEST, Trace and SRA, filtered against clone rearrangements, coaligned on the genome and clustered in a minimal non-redundant way by the manually supervised AceView program, support at least 6 spliced variants.

AceView synopsis, each blue text links to tables and details
Expression: According to AceView, this gene is well expressed, 0.7 times the average gene in this release. The sequence of this gene is defined by 85 GenBank accessions from 77 cDNA clones, some from brain (seen 10 times), eye (6), prostate (5), lung (4), hippocampus (3), testis (3), colon (2) and 40 other tissues. We annotate structural defects or features in 11 cDNA clones.
Alternative mRNA variants and regulation: The gene contains 18 distinct introns (17 gt-ag, 1 gc-ag). Transcription produces 7 different mRNAs, 6 alternatively spliced variants and 1 unspliced form. There are 2 non overlapping alternative last exons (see the diagram). The mRNAs appear to differ by presence or absence of 4 cassette exons, overlapping exons with different boundaries.
2 variants were isolated in vivo, despite the fact that they are predicted targets of nonsense mediated mRNA decay (NMD).
Function: There are 3 articles specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. Proteins are expected to localize in various compartments (cytoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum membrane). No phenotype has yet been reported to our knowledge: this gene's in vivo function is yet unknown.
Protein coding potential: 6 spliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins, altogether 6 different isoforms (4 complete, 2 partial), some containing WD domain, G-beta repeat [Pfam], some transmembrane domains [Psort2]. The remaining mRNA variant (unspliced) appears not to encode a good protein.

Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12.
Map on chromosome 9, links to other databases and other names
Map: This gene WDR31 maps on chromosome 9, at 9q32 according to Entrez Gene. In AceView, it covers 27.18 kb, from 116102605 to 116075426 (NCBI 37, August 2010), on the reverse strand.
Links to: the SNP view, gene overviews from Entrez Gene 114987, GeneCards, expression data from ECgene, UniGene, molecular and other annotations from UCSC, or our GOLD analysis.
The previous AceView annotation is here.
Other names: The gene is also known as WDR31 or FLJ35921, LOC114987. It has been described as WD repeat-containing protein 31.
Closest AceView homologs in other species ?
The closest mouse gene, according to BlastP, is the AceView gene Wdr31 (e=6 10-73).
The closest C.elegans genes, according to BlastP, are the AceView/WormGenes 2D22 (e=3 10-11), lis-1 (e=10-09), 5L288 (e=2 10-09), 3E795 (e=2 10-09), 4K227 (e=3 10-09), which may contain interesting functional annotation.
The closest A.thaliana genes, according to BlastP, are the AceView genes AT3G15980 (e=6 10-12), AT1G52360 (e=7 10-12), ATARCA (e=2 10-11), AT3G18130 (e=3 10-11), AT1G48630 (e=5 10-11), AT1G79990 (e=10-10), TAF5 (e=2 10-10), AT3G49660 (e=5 10-10), which may contain interesting functional annotation
RNA_seq discoveries back to top
Expression/conservation in primates tissues evaluated by cross-mapping to human. back to top
RNA-seq gene expression profile across 16 selected tissues from the Non-Human Primates Reference Transcriptome Resource (link to NHPRTR project).
- Primates: Apes (HUM: Human (Illumina BodyMap 2), CHP: Chimpanzee), Old World monkeys (PTM: Pig-Tailed Macaque, JMI Japanese Macaque, RMI Rhesus Macaque Indian, RMC Rhesus Macaque Chinese, CMM Cynomolgus Macaque Mauritian, CMC Cynomolgus Macaque Chinese, BAB Olive Baboon, SMY Sooty Mangabey); New World monkeys (MST common Marmoset, SQM Squirrel Monkey, OWL Owl Monkey); and Lemurs (MLM Mouse Lemur, RTL Ring-Tailed Lemur).
- The level for significantly expressed genes is color coded in 8 equal sized bins (light to dark green). Light gray is for weak not-accurately measured expression (2 to 8 reads above intergenic background); dark gray for no expression or no sequence conservation (0 read in gene). The plot to the right shows the distribution of measured expression values in all tissues for all genes (blue) and for this gene (green), in Magic index = log2(1000 sFPKM).
You may also examine the strand-specific genome coverage plots on the experimental AceView/Magic hub at UCSC, by tissue or by species. Tracks may be slow to load; please reload if some tracks come up yellow-greenish, and thanks to UCSC for the great work!.
          Complete gene on genome diagram: back to top
Please choose between the zoomable GIF version., and the Flash version.
This diagram shows in true scale the gene on the genome, the mRNAs and the cDNA clones.
Compact gene diagram back to top
Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript.
Sequences: click on the numbers to get the DNA back to top
mRNA variant mRNA matching the genome Best predicted protein 5' UTR 3' UTR Upstream sequence Transcription
Downstream sequence
aAug10 2493 bp 367 aa 290 bp 1099 bp 2kb including Promoter 24676 bp 1kb
bAug10 2490 bp 366 aa 290 bp 1099 bp 2kb including Promoter 24676 bp 1kb
cAug10 4687 bp 242 aa 532 bp 3426 bp 2kb including Promoter 27180 bp 1kb
dAug10 510 bp 169 aa 2kb 10681 bp 1kb
eAug10 2357 bp 155 aa 332 bp 1557 bp 2kb probably including promoter 24572 bp 1kb
fAug10 532 bp 141 aa 109 bp 2kb including Promoter 18776 bp 1kb
gAug10-unspliced 545 bp 30 aa 127 bp 325 bp 2kb probably including promoter 545 bp 1kb

Gene neighbors and Navigator on chromosome 9q32 back to top
ZOOM IN                D:disease,C:conserved,I:interactions,R:regulation,P:publications        
Annotated mRNA diagrams back to top
Bibliography:               3 articles in PubMed back to top
? Gene Summary Gene on genome mRNA:.a, .b, .c, .d, .e, .f, .g-u Alternative mRNAs features, proteins, introns, exons, sequences Expression Tissue Function, regulation, related genes C

To mine knowledge about the gene, please click the 'Gene Summary' or the 'Function, regulation, related genes ' tab at the top of the page. The 'Gene Summary' page includes all we learnt about the gene, functional annotations of neighboring genes, maps, links to other sites and the bibliography. The 'Function, regulation, related genes ' page includes Diseases (D), Pathways, GO annotations, conserved domains (C), interactions (I) reference into function, and pointers to all genes with the same functional annotation.
To compare alternative variants, their summarized annotations, predicted proteins, introns and exons, or to access any sequence, click the 'Alternative mRNAs features' tab. To see a specific mRNA variant diagram, sequence and annotation, click the variant name in the 'mRNA' tab. To examine expression data from all cDNAs clustered in this gene by AceView, click the 'Expression tissue'.

If you know more about this gene, or found errors, please share your knowledge. Thank you !