Note that this locus is complex: it appears to produce several proteins with no sequence overlap.
According to AceView, this gene is expressed at low level
, only 16.6% of the average gene in this release. The sequence
of this gene is defined by 16 GenBank accessions
, some from testis (seen 5 times), brain (4), fetal brain (2), brain, adult, 6 pooled whole brains (once), hippocampus (once), kidney (once), thymus (once) and 3 other tissues.
Alternative mRNA variants and regulation:
The gene contains 7 distinct introns
(6 gt-ag, 1 other). Transcription produces 5 different mRNAs
, 4 alternatively spliced variants and 1 unspliced form. There are 2 probable alternative promotors
and 4 validated alternative polyadenylation sites
(see the diagram
). The mRNAs appear to differ by presence or absence of a cassette exon
, splicing versus retention of one intron. 604 bp of this gene are antisense to spliced gene NPY1R
, raising the possibility of regulated alternate expression.
Note that mRNA .dAug10 was found in vivo
, although it is a predicted target of nonsense mediated mRNA decay
There are 25 articles
specifically referring to this gene in PubMed. Functionally, the gene has been tested for association to diseases
(Autistic Disorder; Breast Neoplasms; Carcinoma; Disease Models, Animal; Feeding Behavior; Puberty, Precocious), proposed to participate in pathway
(Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction) and processes
(G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway, eating behavior, generation of ovulation cycle rhythm, negative regulation of glutamate secretion, negative regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic, positive regulation of acute inflammatory response, positive regulation of anti-apoptosis, positive regulation of smooth muscle cell proliferation). Proteins are expected to have molecular functions
(neuropeptide Y receptor activity, G-protein coupled receptor activity, pancreatic polypeptide receptor activity, peptide YY receptor activity) and to localize
in various compartments (integral to plasma membrane, cytoplasm). Putative protein interactors
have been described (NPY, PYY).
Protein coding potential:
The 4 spliced and the unspliced mRNAs putatively encode good proteins
, altogether 4 different isoforms (2 complete, 2 COOH complete
), some containing domains
7 transmembrane receptor (rhodopsin family), Serpentine type 7TM GPCR chemoreceptor Srsx [Pfam], some transmembrane domains, a second peroximal domain [Psort2]
Please quote: AceView: a comprehensive cDNA-supported gene and transcripts annotation, Genome Biology 2006, 7(Suppl 1):S12
Alternative mRNAs are shown aligned from 5' to 3' on a virtual genome where introns have been shrunk to a minimal length. Exon size is proportional to length, intron height reflects the number of cDNAs supporting each intron, the small numbers show the support of the introns in deep sequencing (with details in mouse-over) . Introns of the same color are identical, of different colors are different. 'Good proteins' are pink, partial or not-good proteins are yellow, uORFs are green. 5' cap or3' poly A flags show completeness of the transcript.
Mouse over the ending of each transcript gives tissues from which the supporting cDNAs were extracted. Details on tissue of origin for each intron and exon is available from the intron and exons table
Click on any transcript to open the specific mRNA page, to see the exact cDNA clone support and eventual SNPs and to get details on tissues, sequences, mRNA and protein annotations. Proteins supported by a single continuous cDNA sequence lead to underlining the name/ending of the variant. Names not underlined result from cDNA concatenation in the coding region and should be experimentally checked.
are depicted by broken lines; the height of the top of each intron reflects the relative number of clones supporting this intron. ]^[ A pink broken line
denotes an intron with standard boundaries (gt-ag or gc-ag) that is exactly supported (i.e. a cDNA sequence exactly matches the genome over 16 bp, 8 on both sides of the intron). ] ^ ] A blue broken line
denotes non-standard introns, exactly supported, but with non-standard at-ac or any other boundaries. ]-[ Pink
and ] - ] blue
straight lines represent 'fuzzy' introns of the standard and non-standard types respectively, those introns do not follow the 16 bp rule. Black straight lines ]-[denote gaps in the alignments.
Wide filled pink areas represent putative protein coding regions, narrow empty pink boxes represent the 5'UTR (on the left) and 3' UTR (on the right). Flags identify validated endings: cap site on the 5' side, polyadenylation site on the 3' side. Filled flags correspond to frequent events while empty flags have lesser supporting cDNAs (yet all are validated); at the 3' side, black flags are associated to the main AATAAA signal, blue flags
to any single letter variant of the main . More explanations are given in the gene help file